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We put 10ml of a certain concentration into the chronicle flask (which was later on replaced by a buckler flask with an attached delivery tube)  We then filled a bowl with water . We also filled the 100ml measuring cylinder (which was then replaced by a burette) with water and turned it upside down and put it into the bowl of water. . We used a clamp to keep the measuring cylinder (which was then replaced by a burette) in place. . We put the delivery tube into the measuring cylinder when it was in the water bowl.

We then put the powdered marble into the chronicle flask (which was later on replaced by a buckler flask with an attached delivery tube) and put a bung on top of it. We removed the bung when the experiment had been going for 1 minute. We noted down how much carbon dioxide was produced and washed out our flask with distilled water after the experiment to get rid of contaminates. We changed quite a lot of things in our experiment. We started off trying to test how concentration and surface area affect rate of reaction; we used 2 grams of large marble chips and small marble chips.

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We also used 20 ml of Hydrochloric acid as well. We figured out trying to test surface area and concentration together was hard because when we put 2 grams of large marble chips in our lowest concentration of hydrochloric acid, nothing was produced so we just ended up testing how concentration affects rate of reaction. We were using 2 grams of small marble chips and 20ml of hydrochloric acid, this reacted to fast and too much gas was produced, it was too much for the measuring cylinder to contain so we ended up using 1 gram of small marble chips.

We also changed the amount of hydrochloric acid to 10ml; we noticed that this produced the same results when we were using 20ml of hydrochloric acid. We ended up using 0. 5 grams of marble chips because at 2m of hydrochloric acid (highest concentration) while using 1 gram of small marble chips, there was a vast amount of gas produced and the measuring cylinder couldn’t hold all of it. We noticed by using the small marble chips we weren’t keeping the surface area constant so we ended up using 0.5 grams of powdered marble so that the surface area was constant, this gave us more consistent results because our results were all over the place when we were using the small marble chips.

We started off using a chronicle flask with a delivery tube attached to the bung, but we ended up using a buckler flask with a delivery tube attached because it was more reliable in terms of collecting gas. We used a burette instead of a measuring cylinder because it had a better range than a measuring cylinder so we could see how much gas we collect to 1 decimal point e.g. 49. 2.

We were not washing out our apparatus at first but then we started to wash them out so we could get rid of any kind of contaminates in the apparatus. We used tap water at first but then we used distilled water because distilled water is pure water, only containing H2O so eliminating any chances of contaminates unlike tap water which contains minerals such as phosphorous etc which could affect our experiment. We noted down the temperature for the reactants before and after the experiment because we couldn’t keep the temperature constant.

Concentration (molar) volume of carbon dioxide produced (cm? ) average amount of carbon dioxide produced time (seconds) rate of reaction (cm? /seconds) 1We only had one anomalous results which was 29. 10, this could have occurred from either using more than 0.5 grams of powdered marble or not washing out the buckler flask properly, leaving contaminates to react with the hydrochloric acid, using tap water instead of distilled water to wash out the apparatus or we could have used the wrong concentration in the experiment.

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