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In this analysis I am going to be highlighting the key lexical features used in my advert and rule booklet about football. To do this you have to use the frameworks, semantics, lexis, syntax and grammar. The first piece of work that I did was a rule booklet for football. There is quite a lot of technical terminology that hasn’t been used due to the type of writing that it is. No abstract nouns have been used, because in a rule booklet it isn’t about emotions and feelings, its about commands and statements of information. The first feature that we come across in the rule booklet is the fact that imperatives have been used already.

“These are the essential things that a football pitch must have”. This is an example of a controlled verb and an imperative, as it states that something must be done. Control verbs (grammar) are used so that the audience no that they have to obeyed by the rules, or something that they have been told to do. They make pieces of writing interesting because they make it sound like they are in control and that people have to do it. Imperatives (syntax) are used throughout the piece of writing as it is a rule booklet and the commands have to be followed for the safety of the people involved in the sport.

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Short simple sentences that are made up of one clause have been used so that the point is put across quicker and simpler. “Up to three substitutions can be used”. This feature appeals to audience due to the fact that it is short, simple and punchy and doesn’t go on for ages to bore the reader. It also gets to point across straight away; this is why it is suitable for this type of writing, as it is instructions so they have to be short.. Proper nouns are used usually to state someone’s name or to give the name of a place. In this case it has been used, “To replace the player the Referee must be told”.

Proper nouns are used to make the text seem more impressive and to engage the reader to make them read further on in the text. “Players must not show under shirts” is also another example of a proper noun. Concrete nouns are one of the main types of nouns that are used throughout the piece of writing. “The Football has gone out of play”. These are very effective sorts of words. They give the reader a solid image in mind and help them to understand things more clearly. This type of noun also ties in with common nouns. There were quite a few common nouns also used. These types of noun are used in normal conversations on a day-to-day basis.

Ones that were used are, “by waving and signalling to the referee with this sort of flag” and “footwear-boots with moulds or studs”. The common noun Boots can also be example of a non count noun and a count noun, as it can be either plural or non plural. This type of noun is used when one or more thing is being talked about. It makes it simpler to describe instead of making it complicated. It is used in this sort of text as it is referring to more than one thing that is needed. Another type of noun used is a collective noun. This type shows the unity and group identity to an audience, usually when speaking about one or more person.

” The fourth official referees” this was the example that was in the rules about football. Here the audience would know that there is a group involved as it plural. The types of adverbs that have been included are time adverbs. “45 minutes and “15 minutes” are two examples used. These give direct information and detail about how long something will take place for. It is essential in this piece of writing as it is one of the main rules of how long a football match can go on for. It will add depth for the audience and give them an idea to what is happening.

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Kylie Garcia

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