# Essay Sample on Carbonate and hydrochloric acid

Once I had completed the preliminary experiments, I conducted my final investigation with the changes I have made from my preliminary experiment. I have shown a table of results below and have shown these results through a graphical representation. Final Results This is a table with all our results that we had collected: The results highlighted in yellow shows all outliers. These results were not included in the graphical representation of data.

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Concentration in Moles Trail Amount of Gas Produced in Time 0secs 20secs 40secs 60secs 80secs 100secs 120secs ariance 0. 00% 5. 80% 8. 57% 3. 85% 5. 97% 3. 73% 4. 38% Conclusion I have created a graph from the results that I have collected. From this graph I can see a significant rise in the volume of gas as the molarity of the hydrochloric acid solution increased.

As we increased the molarity of the solution from 0.25 molar to 2 molar, at increases of 0. 25 molar the total amount of carbon dioxide produced increased. In connection to scientific knowledge behind rates of reaction there are five factors which influence the rate of a reaction. These are: 1) Temperature 2) Concentration 3) Surface Area 4) Use of Catalyst 5) Pressure Temperature The temperature can influence the rate of a reaction. As the temperature is raised, the particles become more charged, as they have higher amounts of energy. Once free, the particles are more likely to collide with each other, forming more new molecules and making the rate of reaction faster.

When the temperature is lowered, the particles become less charged and move around slower. This means that fewer reactions are likely to take place, concluding that a decrease is rate of reactions is a result of lowered temperature. Concentration The concentration can influence the rate of a reaction. As the concentration increases, it means that there is more of a substance for the particles to react with. This means that there is a greater chance that the particles will collide, which speeds up the rate of a reaction.

If the concentration is decreased, then there is less of the chemical, which means that fewer collisions will occur, concluding that a decrease in concentration levels slows down the rate of a reaction. Surface Area The surface area can influence the rate of a reaction. If the substance is broken down into several small parts, such as powder form magnesium it increases the surface area. This means that there is more area for the particles to collide against, meaning that collisions are more likely to occur, increasing the rate of reactions.

If the substance is left as a large block, such as calcium carbonate (marble) chips there is less surface area. This means that there is less chance of the particles colliding, meaning that the rate of reaction decreases. Use of Catalyst The use of a catalyst can influence the rate of a reaction. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction, but does not undergo any change. The catalyst speeds up the rate of reaction as it allows for more collisions to occur. Pressure The pressure can influence the rate of a reaction. The pressure mainly affects the gases in a chemical reaction.

One the pressure is increased; gases have less space in which they can move around freely. This means that the particles are more likely to collide with each other, increasing the rate of a reaction. In comparison, once the pressure is decreased, it means that there is more space for the particles to move around, meaning that it is less likely for particles to collide, slowing down the rate of a reaction. All the factors above are linked with The Collision Theory. The Collision Theory is a theory proposed by Max Trautz and William Lewis in 1916 and 1918. The rate of reaction depends on how often and with how much energy two particles collide.

The collision theory outlines that a chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide with enough energy, so that previous bonds can be broken while new bonds form – creating new molecules. In connection with the results I have collected – as I increased the molarity of the hydrochloric acid solution, it meant that there where more hydrogen and chloride particles. As there where more hydrogen and chlorine particles, there were more chances of reaction between these particles and the calcium carbonate molecules. The more reactions means the quicker the reactants are produced.

This is shown in the graph through the increased production of carbon dioxide. This is shown in the graph – at 120 seconds the 1 molar acid produced about 37ml of carbon dioxide whereas with the 2 molar acid it produced 91ml of carbon dioxide at 120 seconds. The increase in production of carbon dioxide is a result of more hydrogen and chloride molecules in the 2 molar solution than in the 1 molar solution. From interpreting the diagram above, we can see that there are more HCl molecules in the 2 molar solution than in the 1 molar solution which has been diluted with water.

In connection to the ‘Collision Theory’ the rate of a reaction increases with more reacting particles. As the concentration increase in the hydrochloric acid solutions, there were more HCl molecules. This meant that there were more chances of the calcium carbonate molecules reacting with the HCl molecules. This meant that more calcium carbonate reacted with the HCl in the high molarity solutions and therefore produced more carbon dioxide gas quickly – the rate of the reaction increased. In connection to the graphs we can see significant changes in the production of carbon dioxide as the molarity of the solution increased.

We can see a much steeper curve as the molarity of the solutions is increased. From the graph we can see that with the 2 molar solutions, at 100 seconds it produced on average 80. 5ml of CO2, whereas with the 1 molar solution at 100 second it produced 31. 2ml of CO2. From this I can conclude that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, the more carbon dioxide is produced within certain intervals of time. This shows that the steeper the gradient of the slope, the faster the reaction. Additionally I have calculated the gradient for each molar solution.

I have calculated the gradient of each line by using the following formula: By working out the formula I could get an accurate idea of the rate of reaction. From the results I can see that as the molarity of solution increased, the gradient of the graph also increased. The gradient also has indicated how much carbon dioxide gas is released every second. In connection to the results, the gradient for 2 molar solution is 0. 7125 and the gradient for 1 molar solution is 0. 295. This shows that once the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is increased, the gradient also increases.

The gradient indicates the speed of the reaction – therefore the higher the concentration, the quicker the rate of reaction. This is linked to the collision theory – as the concentration increases there are more acid particles in the same volume. This means that there are more chances of collisions between the particles, increasing the rate of reaction. Additionally the gradient of the line shows me the amount of carbon dioxide released every second. From the graph I can see that with the 2 molar solution 0. 7125ml of carbon dioxide was released every second and with the 1 molar solution, 0.

295ml of carbon dioxide was released every second. As the amount of carbon dioxide released each second shows me the rate of reaction, I can come to a conclusion at as the concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases. To come to a reliable conclusion I have worked out the average amount of carbon dioxide released each second. To work out the average time I have used the following formula: The table below shows the amount of gas produced each second for each molar solution: Concentration (Moles) Amount of Gas Produced each Second in ml By working out the amount of carbon dioxide produced each second it indicates the rate of reaction.

From the results I can see that the 2 molar solution produced 0. 760ml per second, and the 1 molar solution produced 0. 307ml per second. From this I can conclude that once the concentration increased, more carbon dioxide gas was being produced each second. This shows that as the concentration increased, the rate of reaction also increased. Additionally in referral to the graph I can see that the curve of the graph is increasing but curving down (blunting) towards the level of 120 second.