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1. Executive Summary

Negotiation can be seen as a procedure of via media affecting parties with different sets of values and aims which are based on their different vested involvements. Effective negotiants recognise these different values, aims and involvements, so work towards accomplishing a win-win state of affairs in the longer term.

One of the most quickly developing economic systems is that of the People ‘s Republic of China ( PRC ) . Approximately one-fifth of the universe ‘s consumers reside at that place and the state is presently undertaking huge substructure undertakings with a continued committedness to market-based reform. These factors contribute to the increasing attending from Western concern. Imports to China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have exceeded US $ 336 billion in 1993 ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

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The paper highlights the significance of the Chinese cultural market to Western concern, and recognizes the major cultural differences between Chinese and Westerners, followed by a consideration as to how civilization impacts on preferable Western and Chinese manner dialogues. The paper besides illustrates the importance of the Guanxi, the job of covering with Chinese bureaucratism and the demand to postpone to senior status which can frequently decelerate down the finalization of a concern trade as Chinese negotiants need to seek the authorization of their immediate foremans.

It is noted that different civilizations have different involvements, values, ethical rules, attitudes, behavior and lingual manners which could impact the procedure and result of any dialogue ( Ferraro, 2002 ) .

It is recommended that foreign negotiants in China should follow a collaborative manner of dialogue, understand and follow the Chinese constructs of Guanxi, Mianzi and Renging in order to accomplish a win-win result. It is besides of import to understand that while the Chinese are willing to subscribe contracts, they do non comprehend them as the terminal of the dialogues instead as the formal motive to make concern, which necessitates farther dialogues. In China, relationships are presently much more of import than minutess and they pay small shop to formal contracts, trusting instead more on friendly relationship and trust as the footing for making concern. This leads to a drawn-out dialogue procedure which encompasses societal every bit good as concern parametric quantities ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

2. Footings of Mention

We are Otobo International Limited, a confer withing house based in London, United Kingdom.

Our Client is Justconn Group Plc, a building company whose central office is located in London, with subdivisions in assorted parts of Europe.

Justconn has merely approached our company because it is about to direct some of its staff to China to transport out a concern dialogue on a undertaking which they are really much interested in set abouting.

This will be the first clip Justcon will be transporting out any signifier of concern minutess outside Europe and their top direction recognize the demand to develop their employees in the right manner of negociating with the Chinese as they know that cultural differences will play a major function in the result of the dialogue.

This Briefing paper attempts to sketch the cardinal facts to observe when transporting out dialogues in the Chinese manner in order to accomplish a win-win result.

3. Overview of Current Situation

It is of import to observe that no affair how simple or complex the selling system, dialogues between purchasers and Sellerss occur. When purchasing determinations are complex, and particularly when abroad dialogues are involved, dialogue techniques can play a major function in the successful decision of a concern trade. It is unrealistic to presume that one dialogue manner fits all civilizations ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

One of the most quickly developing economic systems is the Peoples Republic of China ( PRC ) . Approximately one-fifth of the universe ‘s consumers reside at that place. The state is presently undertaking huge substructure undertakings and there is a continued committedness to market-based reform. These factors contribute to the increasing attending from Western concern. Imports to China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have exceeded US $ 336 billion in 1993 ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

“Guanxi” , which literally means “relationships” , stands for any type of relationship. In the Chinese concern universe it is understood as the web of relationships among assorted parties that cooperate together and back up one another. The Chinese man of affairs outlook is one of “you abrasion my dorsum, I ‘ll rub yours.” In kernel, Guanxi involves exchange of favors done on a regular basis and voluntarily. It is an of import construct to understand if one is to work efficaciously in the Chinese society. In China it is the right “Guanxi” that makes all the difference in vouching that concern will be successful. Close attending should be paid to one ‘s immediate Chinese web, and attempt should be made to set up good “Guanxi” with them. They can indirectly make links to new familiarities and information resources, therefore assisting to develop other right “Guanxi” ( Lo, 2004 ) .

It is the demand to establish dialogues on the format of Chinese civilization which requires cognition of Guanxi, Renqing ( executing of favor ) , Mianzi ( Chinese construct of “giving face” ) and an apprehension of why dialogues could be slow. Foreigners need to understand that while the Chinese are willing to subscribe contracts, they do non see them as the terminal of the dialogues instead as the formal willingness to make concern which necessitates farther dialogues ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

Maddux stated that dialogue is an exchange procedure between parties to obtain resources or benefits from another party when resources are under the “sellers” control. In a successful dialogue, a negotiant obtains something of greater value in exchange for something on which he or she see as holding a lower comparative value.

Maddux ( 1988 ) developed a six-step dialogue procedure:

  1. Geting to cognize one another.
  2. Statement of ends and aims.
  3. Get downing the procedure.
  4. Expressions of dissension and struggle are non a trial of power but an chance to uncover what people need.
  5. Reappraisal and via media.
  6. Agreement in rule or colony.

These stairss can be executed during the dialogue in order to accomplish a win-win result.

It should besides be noted that while the Chinese are classified as Holistic negotiants i.e. they deal with issues jointly as a whole and do grants merely at the terminal of a dialogue, Westerners are classified as Consecutive negotiants i.e. they split complex dialogues into separate issues and do grants on single issues. Consecutive negotiants find it disputing to cover with Holistic negotiant, therefore consideration has to be made during the dialogue and one has to be patient with the Chinese manner in order to accomplish a win-win result ( Lapwood, 2009 ) .

4. Analysis of Situation

4.1 Political Factors

The People ‘s Republic of China was founded by the Communist Party of China, the leader of the Chinese people. The socialist system is the cardinal system of the People ‘s Republic of China. The people manage the province, economic system, civilization and other societal personal businesss through assorted agencies and signifiers. The basic undertaking and ends of the province is to concentrate on the socialist modernisation thrust with the purpose of constructing socialism with Chinese features ; to adhere to the socialist route, persist in the reform and opening up plan, better the socialist system in all facets, develop the market economic system, better the regulation of jurisprudence ; to be autonomous and work hard to bit by bit recognize the modernisation of the industry, agribusiness, national defense mechanism, scientific discipline and engineering so as to construct China into a strong and democratic socialist state with a high grade of cultural development ( www.china.org.cn ) .

Foreign trade is controlled by Customs, the Ministry of Commerce, and the Bank of China which controls entree to the foreign currency required for imports. Since restrictions on foreign trade were reduced, there have been more chances for single endeavors to take portion in concern with foreign houses without much engagement from official bureaus. Although private sector companies still lead little and average sized concerns, the authorities still plays a large portion in the bigger industries. The fact that over a 3rd of the Chinese economic system is province owned proves this ( www.china.org.cn ) .

Therefore, the Chinese authorities encourages concern associations and investing from western companies and companies from other parts of the universe.

4.2 Economic Factors

The economic system of the People ‘s Republic of China is an influential and quickly developing and market economic system. In China, there has been denationalization of most of the province owned endeavors which has led to the gap up to western states. China is the 3rd largest economic system in the universe after the U.S. and Japan with a nominal GDP of US $ 4.4 trillion ( 2008 ) in exchange-rate footings is the 2nd largest in the universe after that of the United States with a GDP of $ 7.8 trillion ( 2008 ) on a buying power para footing. China has had the fastest-growing major economic system for the past 30 old ages with an mean one-year GDP growing rate above 10 % . China ‘s per capita income has increased at an mean one-year rate of more than 8 % over the last three decennaries.

Foreign trade is supervised by the Ministry of Commerce, imposts, and the Bank of China, the foreign exchange arm of the Chinese banking system, which manages entree to the foreign currency required for imports. Since limitations on foreign trade were cut down, wide chances for single endeavors to prosecute in exchanges with foreign houses has been in topographic point without much intercession from official bureaus.

In the early 1980s, China restricted foreign investings to export-based operations and insisted foreign investors to organize joint-venture partnerships with Chinese houses. Foreign-invested endeavors are responsible for about 58-60 % of China ‘s imports and exports. Since the early 1990s, the authorities has authorized foreign investors to fabricate and merchandise a broad scope of goods in the domestic market. The authorities besides removed clip limitations on the constitution of joint ventures, allowed foreign spouses to go chairs of joint venture boards, provided some warrant against nationalisation, and approved the constitution of entirely foreign-owned endeavors. Foreign investing remains a major component in China ‘s rapid enlargement in universe trade and has been a important factor in the growing of urban occupations. In 1998, foreign-invested endeavors created about 40 % of China ‘s exports, and foreign exchange militias summed up to about $ 145 billion. Foreign-invested endeavors today manufacture about half of China ‘s exports ( www.china.org.cn ) .

4.3 Sociological Factors

The PRC appears to be a ambitious environment in which to carry on dialogues, a factor shared with other Chinese-based economic systems such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. China is a high context civilization in which people are intensely involved with others and information is widely shared ( Hall, 1976 ) . The cultural variable has been explained by Guanxi, yet Guanxi would is a dependent variable gotten from the cultural and matter-of-fact demands of Chinese society. Research to explicate cultural differences between states was carried out by Hofstede ( 1991 ) who identified five dimensions of civilization:

  1. Power distance ( measured from little to big )
  2. Collectivism versus individuality
  3. Femininity versus maleness
  4. Uncertainty turning away ( from weak to strong )
  5. Long-run Orientation

Hofstede ‘s work makes comparings between Western-based civilizations, such as Great Britain and USA, to Chinese civilizations such as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hofstede ‘s ( 1991 ) work for the Chinese and Western states are summarised in the Table below.

Power distance is a step of the extent to which the less powerful members of establishments and administrations within a state expect and accept that power is distributed unevenly. This indicates that people in the Chinese states accept the fact that power is unevenly distributed in society and concern.

Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between persons are free. It is obvious from the tabular array that Chinese states record much lower mean tonss compared to Western states which show comparatively high tonss. This indicates that human ties taking to group, instead than single, attempt in concern are more common in the Chinese based states than in Western states. The Chinese states tend to be group-based economic systems and have a clearer hierarchal construction in their determination procedure whereas their Western opposite numbers are more individualistic and slackly organised. The Chinese excessively are patient but relentless in their chases and willing to renegociate contracts to accomplish their long-run aims. These features pose a challenge to Western dialogues as they need to understand the Chinese group kineticss, their hierarchal constructions and their long-run orientation all of which are a hint to their motivations in concern dialogues. The fact that Chinese negotiants prefer to confer with and move jointly may explicate why Guanxi is a phenomenon found in Chinese states.

Femininity versus maleness is a step of how distinguishable gender functions are in society. The difference between the Chinese and Western states is non every bit marked as in the other dimensions. This could be due to the rapid economic growing in these states and the fact that direction manner has been subjected to Western influences and because in Chinese society every bit good as Western society there are chances for fostering, every bit good as self-asserting functions.

The uncertainness turning away index, a step of the extent to which members of a civilization feel threatened by unsure and unknown state of affairss.

With respect to long-run orientation, the Western states reflect a much lower norm mark than the Chinese states. The “long-term” orientation reflects the manner in which Chinese civilizations incorporate, in their values, the instructions of Confucius and in peculiar the importance of doggedness and thrift.

It can be seen that the most important Sino-Western cultural differences occur in footings of individuality, power distance and long-run orientation. These three dimensions are likely to impact on the manner each side chooses to carry on their dialogues.

There is besides acknowledgment that the negotiant ‘s function is controlled by factors such as the communicating context within his or her civilization, particularly in state of affairss with high context civilization. Hall ( 1976 ) defines high context civilizations as those in which information is widely shared and communicating with deep significance is transmitted freely. Western states are low context in nature and so are non likely to be inhibited so much by cultural considerations. This may be due to the being of individuality in these states and the strong mobility from one topographic point to another.

It is assumed that during dialogue, both parties adjust their outlooks during the declaration of struggle which implies that one side does non hold absolute power over the other side. It is believed that Chinese civilization influences the manner dialogues proceed and are structured, which makes covering with the Chinese unique. In sing the manner the Chinese enter into dialogues, Guanxi, Mianzi and Renqing are explored as portion of this procedure.

Guanxi is driven by deep frozen cultural beliefs stemming from the instructions of Confucius, and from the matter-of-fact demands of life in reasonably self-supporting communities

Mianzi is the Chinese construct of giving “face” . This means giving regard and recognizing the position and moral repute of the Chinese negotiant in society. It is of import to protect one ‘s “face” but it is even more of import to give “face” to others. It involves a mutual relationship of regard and courtesy to and from your opposite numbers. To “give face” means to praise person ‘s repute in a society and to “lose face” is to denounce position and repute. It besides indicates a loss of assurance and a deficiency of trust ( Buttery and Leung, 1996 ) . In concern state of affairss, aggressive behavior from either party can botch the face of the other party.

Renqing is the acting of favors and giving of gifts in China. For Instance, a man of affairs may do a contribution to the Department of Transport for infra construction proviso or a professor could direct books to a Chinese University. ( Buttery and Leung, 1996 ) .

If a contract is what is required by a foreign negotiant it is besides of import to gain that there are three distinguishable phases in the procedure harmonizing to Mente ( 1992 ) :

  1. The societal facet.
  2. The sign language of the contract.
  3. The post-negotiation phase.

The societal facet involves the formation of relationships, trust and understanding the cultural values of both squads of negotiants. Before the contract is signed there are normally two distinguishable phases: the proficient stage, which is elaborate and the commercial stage. From the Chinese side, these two stages may be conducted by two separate negociating squads. It should be noted that the sign language of a contract does non bespeak the terminal of the dialogues but merely the motive of the Chinese to perpetrate to the relationship. This means they may go on to negociate even after the contract has been signed, after all the Chinese continuously emphasise that all understandings are based on friendly relationship and good will ( Mente, 1992 ) and so the contract does non bespeak the concluding understanding.

4.4 Technological

China ‘s leaders have been described as technocrats because of their involvements in scientific discipline and engineering. Since the early 1980s scientific and technological modernisation has been given high precedence. China is equipped with the latest engineering and besides is presently undertaking huge substructure undertakings in its committedness to market-based reform. These factors contribute to the increasing attending from Western concern ( Buttery and Leung, 1996 ) .

Therefore China has substructure that will enable a smooth executing of the building of the proposed undertaking.

5. Solutions and Recommendations

Western methods seem to follow a procedure concluding in the sign language of a contract. It is a affair of fact operation but tradeoffs are made between the strictly proficient excellence and benefit of a dialogue and cognition and trust of the other negotiating house perchance because of past traffics.

It is the demand to establish dialogues on the format of Chinese civilization which requires cognition of Guanxi, Renqing and Mianzi and an apprehension of why dialogues could be slow. Foreigners should besides understand that while the Chinese are willing to subscribe contracts, they do non comprehend them as the terminal of the dialogues instead as the formal motive to make concern which necessitates farther dialogues.

The Chinese states tend to be group-based economic systems and have a clearer hierarchal construction in their determination procedure whereas their Western opposite numbers are more individualistic and slackly organised. The Chinese excessively are patient but relentless in their chases and willing to renegociate contracts to accomplish their long-run aims. These features pose a challenge to Western dialogues as they need to understand the Chinese group kineticss, their hierarchal constructions and their long-run orientation all of which are a hint to their motivations in concern dialogues.

In China, relationships are presently much more of import than minutess and they pay small shop to formal contracts, trusting more on friendly relationship and trust as the footing for making concern. This leads to a drawn-out dialogue procedure which encompasses societal every bit good as concern parametric quantities. Therefore, In China it would be misdirecting to see the dialogue procedure as a pure economic exchange procedure, instead it is more of a procedure of fiting both the proficient facets of the merchandise and service to the demands of the purchaser but at the same time fiting the friendly relationship and trust coevals facets of making concern ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

6. Prognosiss and Results

It is expected that for a successful dialogue to take topographic point, the negotiant must

  • Adopt an appropriate scheme
  • Undertaking positive personal and organizational feelings
  • Carry out intensive research
  • Make relevant questions
  • Offer and petition appropriate and considerate grants at the right clip.

It can be disputing to transport out International dialogues and some of the jobs that can be encountered can be due to utilizing a different legal construction, negociating in a different scene, get bying with Government intervention and the possibility of new statute laws besides natural catastrophe and terrorist act. In add-on, transporting out dialogues in another state could ensue in Culture daze, Jetlag and the Host would be at an advantage and might set you under force per unit area to give away grants ( Lapwood, 2009 )

It is anticipated that for a successful dialogue to take topographic point, negotiants should follow N-2 manner and besides take the undermentioned factors into consideration

  • Remain flexible
  • Be clip witting
  • Be prepared
  • Pay good attending ( Listen )
  • Use Interpreters who understand the civilization, non merely the linguistic communication
  • Focus on the involvements behind the places

7. Mentions

Buttery, E.A. and Leung, T.K.P. ( 1996 ) . “The difference between Chinese and Western negotiations” , European Journal of Marketing, 32 ( 3/4 ) , pp. 374-389. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-www.emeraldinsight.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0070320308.pdf ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

China ‘s political system [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.china.org.cn/english/Political/26143.htm ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Lapwood J. ( 2009 ) “Week 8: Negotiating across cultures” . Communication in Business [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //breo.beds.ac.uk ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Lo, V. ( 2004 ) The King of Guanxi – How An Foreigner Succeeded in China [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //chinese-school.netfirms.com/guanxi.html ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Ferraro, G. ( 2002 ) The cultural Dimensions of International Business. 4th edn. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Hall, E.T. ( 1976 ) Beyond Culture. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.

Hofstede, G. ( 1991 ) Cultures and Administrations: Software of the Mind. Hymen: McGraw-Hill.

Maddux, R. ( 1988 ) , Successful Negotiation. London: Kogan Page

Mente, B. ( 1992 ) , Chinese Etiquette and Ethics in Business, NTC Business Book.

8. Bibliography

Chaisrakeo, S. & A ; Speece, M. ( 2004 ) , “Culture, Intercultural communicating competency, and gross revenues dialogue: a qualitative research attack ”Journal of Business & A ; Industrial Marketing, 19 ( 44 ) pp.267-282. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-www.emeraldinsight.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0800190404.pdf ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Manning, T. & A ; Robertson, B. ( 2003 ) , “Influencing and Negociating accomplishments: some research and reflections-Part 1.”Industrial and Commercial Training, 35 ( 1 ) , pp.11-15. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-www.emeraldinsight.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0370350102.pdf ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Manning, T. & A ; Robertson, B. ( 2003 ) , “Influencing and Negociating accomplishments: some research and reflections-Part 2.”Industrial and Commercial Training, 35 ( 2 ) , pp.60-66. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-www.emeraldinsight.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0370350204.pdf ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Manning, T. & A ; Robertson, B. ( 2004 ) , “Influencing, Negotiating accomplishments and struggle -handling: some extra research and reflection” Industrial and Commercial Training, 36 ( 3 ) , pp.104-109. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-www.emeraldinsight.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0370360303.pdf ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Mead, R. ( 1998 ) International direction: Cross-cultural dimensions. 2nd edn. Google [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? id=2CK7Um6t7yUC & A ; printsec=frontcover # v=onepage & A ; q= & A ; f=false ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

Weiss, S.E. ( 2003 ) “Teaching the cultural Aspects of Negotiation: A scope of experimental Techniques” , Journal of Management Education, 27 ( 1 ) , pp.96-121. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-ejscontent.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ContentServer.aspx? target=http % 3A % 2F % 2Fjme.sagepub.com % 2Fcgi % 2Freprint % 2F27 % 2F1 % 2F96.pdf % 3F % 26UCI_FMT % 3DKEV % 26UCI.UserIP % 3D194.80.222.215 % 26UCI.PID % 3D ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .

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