Before the 1070s, about every drawing produced in the universe done with pencil or ink on paper. Minor alterations require erasing and redrawing while major alterations frequently meant animating the pulling from the abrasion. A alteration in a drawing will impact the other paperss and all of these alterations and acknowledgment are done manually which is clip devouring ( iBM.com, 2003 ) . The debut of Computer Aided Design ( CAD ) so makes a alteration in the manner of bring forthing design.
CAD is a package application which uses the computing machine engineering in the procedure of design and design-documentation. Basically, CAD package is used to plan curves and figures in planar ( 2D ) infinite, curves, surfaces and solids in 3-dimensional ( 3D ) objects. CAD package enables the user to bring forth better streamlining design, drafting, and certification and facilitate fabrication procedure. It provides end product in the signifier of electronic files and allows the users to acquire printing transcript.
CAD package is frequently used in building, fabrication and other industries because it can convey economic system to the procedures by supplying convenience in conveying information in proficient and technology drawings. Examples of information which can be conveyed are stuffs, procedures, dimensions and tolerance. The package helps to bring forth drafting and design for all types of edifices such as residential houses, infirmaries and mills. Besides, the package is besides used throughout the technology procedure to bring forth conceptual design and layout for the merchandises and specify the strength and dynamic analysis of fabrication constituents.
There are many CAD package manufacturers such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, Pro-E Wildfire, Catia and many.
CAD ORIGIN/ TERMINOLOGY
There are many indispensable synonymous footings in CAD package. It is sometimes translated as ‘computer-assisted ‘ , ‘computer-aided drafting ‘ , or a similar phrase. CADD ( Computer Aided Design and Drafting ) and CAM ( Computer Aided Manufacturing ) are other related acronyms. All of these footings have subtle differences in significance and each is used for different intent.
Dr Patrick J. Hanratty developed the first commercial numerical-control programming system in the twelvemonth 1957. He had greatly contributed to the field of CAD design and fabrication and he was known as ‘the Father of CAD ‘ .
In twelvemonth 1960, Ivan Sutherland produced a undertaking called SKETCHPAD as the first measure to CAD industry. SKETCHPAD allowed the interior decorator to interact with computing machine diagrammatically where the design can be fed into the computing machine by utilizing a light pen to pull on a proctor. Thus, doing it as an indispensable characteristic of modern CAD package.
The first commercial applications of CAD were in big companies in the automotive and aerospace industries every bit good as in electronics. This was due to merely big corporations could afford the computing machines capable of executing the computations. In twelvemonth 1964, Dr Patrick J. Hanratty had utilised Design Augmented by Computer ( DAC-1 ) in his company undertakings. In twelvemonth 1971, UNISURF was developed by Pierre B & A ; eacute ; zier at Renault. It was a pioneering surface CAD system for auto organic structure design and tooling. The initiation of Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc. ( MSC ) in twelvemonth 1971 by Dr Patrick J. Hanratty enhanced the development of CAD. He so supplied the codifications to many companies such as Control Data, Autotrol, Garber, Calma and many.
The application of CAD expanded bit by bit when computing machine became low-cost. The development of CAD package for personal desktop computing machines was the impulse for about cosmopolitan application in all countries of building.
Cardinal points in the sixtiess and 1970s such as IBM, Intergraph and Intergraph IGDS became the foundation of CAD systems. Since so, the execution of CAD had evolved dramatically. 2D graphic was design with CAD package ab initio in the 1970s and limited to bring forthing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings. Variety applications of CAD were allowed when scheduling and computing machine hardware became advanced.
In twelvemonth 1982, Autodesk was founded by John Walker which so led to the 2D system AutoCAD. In twelvemonth 1988, Pro/Engineer was released and required greater uses of characteristic based patterning methods. The development of artworks engines ShapeData and ACIS at the terminal of the 1980s inspired by the work of Ian Braid. The inspiration so led to the release of SolidWorks in twelvemonth 1995 and SolidEdge in twelvemonth 1996.
Today, in twenty-first century, there are many CAD package merchandises in the market. The celebrated CAD package manufacturers are Autodesk, PTC, UGS Corp and many. By and large, the bundle of CAD package can be classified into 3 types, there are 2D outlining systems, mid-range 3D solid characteristic modelers and high-end 3D intercrossed systems.
CAD DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA
In Malaysia, CAD package has been on the sell since the 1980s. In the mid 1990s, the applications of sophisticated CAD tools with 3D modeling and coloured artworks sweetenings had become more common. Since so, the use of CAD has impacted the professional pattern, instruction and the research associated with architecture enormously.
In the present clip, CAD package including CAM is now widely accepted and used throughout the industry. The engineering moves from dearly-won workstations to off-the-rack computing machines. 3D modeling has become a norm and it can be found even in applications for the wider industry such as house trappings and garden planning.
As the use of CAD has become portion and package of the day-to-day running of architecture houses, higher-learning establishments such as universities and colleges have produced great attempts in fixing the built environment market with work force that is equipped with the indispensable accomplishments and ability to run CAD.
CAD is used to plan, develop and optimise merchandises, which can be goods used by end consumers or intermediate goods used in other merchandises. For illustration, edifices, mechanical and technology tools, vehicle and transit and many other merchandise designs.
In the field of technology, CAD allows design and drafting of tools and machinery which are used in the industry constituents. Besides, detailed technology of 3D theoretical accounts and 2D drawings of physical constituents can be generated easy by using CAD.
In the field of edifice architecture, CAD has reduced the demand for manual drawing. CAD helps to bring forth all specifics of a edifice such as floor programs, subdivisions, lifts, positions positions and theoretical account renditions in a shorter clip. The package allows outlining and design of all types of edifices.
Besides designing, developing and optimising merchandises in edifice and technology, CAD is besides used for concern intent such as the followerss:
Testing on Conceptual Merchandises
CAD eliminates the demand to prove all of the merchandise design physically. Alternatively of carry oning physically proving, the developers can run practical trials utilizing CAD which can imitate the same status. The application of practical trials is frequently adopted in the aeronautical company which its testing can be ruinously clip consuming and expensive.
CAD allows flexible procedure of thought coevals when the restricting factor of paradigm industry is removed. The endeavors, both employees and possible clients are exposed to more unfastened and new thoughts and suggestions. The suggestions for new merchandises so can be tested rapidly at a lower cost.
CAD allows little betterment on new merchandise designs immediately. It is utile in look intoing possible betterments to bing merchandises.
Cad allows earlier procedure of market testing because practical new merchandises can be presented more rapidly than physical paradigms and feedback can be obtained immediately.
Cad can besides be applied in the field of medical to pull strings medical images such as digital x-ray image ( DICOM ) . The application of CAD in the presentation of medical images is still new compared to CAD widely used in the Fieldss that involve with designing of the fabrication industry merchandises and building field.
CAD is one of the many tools most used by applied scientists and interior decorators.
3D Wire Frame is an extension of 2D drafting. Basically, it possesses similar manner to the 2D system. Its concluding merchandise does non hold mass belongingss. Besides, there is no characteristic straight added to it such as holes.
3D Dumb Solids possesses similar manner to the manner of making the existent universe object. This engineering has been integrated into plans such as AutoCAD and Cadkey 19. The chief provides bill of exchange positions which can be easy generated from the theoretical accounts. However, the alterations can merely be done by canceling the object or characteristic and start over. Besides, its assemblies do non include tools which allow gesture.
3D Parametric solid modeliling allows the operator to utilize what is referred to as ‘design purpose ‘ . Any future alterations to the design will depend on the original portion. It may be simple, hard or about impossible. This engineering has been integrated into plans such as Alibre Design, TopSolid, SolidWorks and Solid Edge.
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL COMPETENCIES FOR CAD
Harmonizing to Duan ( 2006 ) survey, CAD and design technology users require 7 classs of accomplishments and cognition as the followerss:
General cognition and accomplishments
English authorship and speech production
Problem work outing
Mathematicss and scientific discipline accomplishments.
Basic outlining cognition and accomplishments
Geometric dimensioning and tolerance
Basic mechanical drafting
Basic architectural drafting
Basic civil drafting
Computer cognition and accomplishments
Computer file direction
Basic application of cyberspace
CAD cognition and accomplishments
Major CAD package
CAD 2D drawings
CAD 3D modeling
Basic CAD LISP Programming
CAD design undertaking
Custimization of CAD plan
Basic technology analysis and proficient cognition and accomplishments
Particular cognition and accomplishments
Design application and patterns
Particular undertakings in the field
Selling and gross revenues
Basic cognition of Torahs
ADVANTAGES OF CAD
CAD package offers several advantages which attracts many industry participants. Basically, it offers benefits which so can take to clip and cost economy. Both cost and clip salvaging are of import particularly in the universe of concern because in the position of commercial adult male, clip is money.
First of wholly, the package has become an of import engineering in guaranting lower merchandise development costs. Before the 1070s, about every drawing produced in the universe done with pencil or ink on paper and any alteration requires wipe outing and redrawing which will bring forth waste. CAD package enables the interior decorators to develop their work on screen and allows future redacting. Therefore, it brings benefits in cost salvaging alternatively of redrawing due to minor alterations. Besides, the package besides ensures short design rhythm as it eliminates the demands to redraw when minor alterations happen, it brings benefits in clip economy.
Both cost and clip salvaging in merchandise development can besides be achieved by extinguishing the demand to prove all of the merchandise design physically. Alternatively of carry oning physically proving, the developers can run practical trials utilizing CAD which can imitate the same status. The application of practical trials is frequently adopted in the aeronautical company which its testing can be ruinously clip consuming and expensive.
Cost economy can be achieved by cut downing the figure of interior decorators. By utilizing CAD, the professional interior decorators can make the designing work faster and extinguish the demand of extra interior decorators. Besides, cost economy besides takes topographic point when CAD package offers better and standardised drawings which so facilitate better communications.
Furthermore, CAD allows rapidly and easy design change which besides lead to faster merchandise development. Faster merchandise development so will take to increase in productiveness of the interior decorator. The package allows understanding on how the existent merchandise plants by giving life to the merchandise so that instantly alterations can be made if required. CAD package helps the interior decorator in synthesizing, analyzing and documenting the design. Therefore, the productiveness of the interior decorator can be improved due to fast designing, low planing cost and shorter completion times.
In add-on, salvaging in clip and cost does non impact the quality of the design. In fact, CAD can better the design quality because big figure of tools is offered by the package which assists probe and analysis of the proposed design. Beside, CAD besides offers greater truth and mistakes are reduced to give a much better design. This better design can assist to transport out faster fabrication and cut down wastage due to faulty design.
DISADVANTAGES OF CAD
Although most of the users understand on the advantages brought by CAD, in the average clip, it comes with several disadvantages that the applied scientist or enterpriser must understand. These advantages may impact the attack that acquiring a merchandise on the market.
The application of CAD package requires developing among the users. This will so be extra money in the staff preparation.
Besides, its application requires expensive start up costs including hardware, package and preparation. Computer engineering used in CAD is expensive to implement and back up the package. Besides, the engineering is non changeless as new hardware and package plans invariably come on the market and hence, the users need to maintain up with these alterations for compatibility grounds.
Hazard of engineering failure must be taken into consideration when implementing CAD as computing machine used may interrupt down. It so affects the advancement of merchandise development which is non favoured in a rigorous production agenda. The hazard is highest when the company relies on assembly-line construction as failure will impact all points of production alternatively of an stray production country. Besides, when there break down in computing machine, all the informations saved including CAD transcript will be lost.
Before the 1070s, all of the design and drawings are produced manually which is clip devouring. Therefore, the debut of Computer Aided Design ( CAD ) has made a alteration in the manner of bring forthing design.
CAD is a package application which uses the computing machine engineering in the procedure of design to bring forth planar ( 2D ) infinite, curves, surfaces and solids in 3-dimensional ( 3D ) objects. It is frequently used in building, fabrication and other industries such as the technology procedure to bring forth conceptual design and layout for the merchandises and specify the strength and dynamic analysis of fabrication constituents.
CAD brings advantages to the users, in the average clip, it besides brings restriction or pull back. Basically, cost and clip salvaging are the chief advantages as design and drawings can be produced faster than manually. However, when there is a engineering failure particularly computing machine, it will impact the production line and cause dalay.
Therefore, wise determination must be made when following CAD in merchandise development and it must take into consideration of factors such as clip and cost of the engineering transportation every bit good as the expertness available.