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The ability of the information system should be to assist by allowing and easing the translator to accept sufficient bases to travel through the planned action. The intent of the information systems should be to assist the users to be convinced to transport out what the user desires and the concluding information reaches the intended translator. ( Goldkhul, Agerfalk, 2002, page 17 )

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Harmonizing to our research the actability features of information system may be followed to reply the research inquiry like how the engagement system could be more available for the disability people. This could be achieved by taking what communicative action to execute, explicate the propositional content of the action and attach it to an apprehensible and appropriate action manner and put to death the communicative action. ( Goldkhul, Agerfalk, 2002 )

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Usability vs. Actability

From a serviceability position the intent of utilizing an Information System is to accomplish specified ends. Actability, on other manus, focuses on the public presentation of actions. The serviceability is chiefly centres on worlds who really interact with computing machine system, while in actability, a user is any one affected by the events performed by the system. The usability thought of ‘product ‘ is equal to the ‘IS ‘ thought of the actability. The actability puts more focal point on the package constituents and lesser on ergonomic issues. ( Agerfalk, Cronholm, 2001 )

Interaction Design Principles

Harmonizing to Strijbos, Kirschner and Martens ( page 235, 2004 ) to understand the definition of the interaction design more exactly we needs to divide these two footings ‘interaction ‘ and ‘design ‘ . The interaction is a changeless procedure of action and reaction between two parties whether worlds or machines. The design is doing sense ( of things ) , so the interaction design is defined as the subject devoted to specify the actions of artefacts and the worth of communicating services to its users, and the quality of the experiences they ( users ) have while utilizing it. ( Strijbos, Kirschner, 2004 )

Degree centigrades: UsersBaddar RehmatDesktop hesis_unia-usability-of-graphic-design-4.jpgFigure 3.4: A Simple Interaction Design Model ( Oleh Listia Natadjaja, 2010 )

The Human Computer Interaction and User Interface Design are aimed to better the efficiency, effectivity and version of the interaction between the user and the computing machine by stand foring, understanding and implementing theoretical accounts. ( Yusof, Amin, Zainudin, Baker, page 1 ) . The intent behind the human computing machine interaction is to make relation between the human and the artefact.

To better the serviceability of an application, it is of import to hold a well designed interface and these “ Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design ” are claimed to be a usher to good interaction design. ( Shneiderman, Plaisant, 2005 ) . The aureate regulations of interface design are as follow in tabular array:

Table 3.3: Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design ( Schneiderman, Ben )

Ben Shneiderman ‘s Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design

Strive for consistence

Enable frequent users to utilize cutoffs

Offer enlightening feedback

Design duologue to give closing

Offer simple mistake managing

Permit easy reversal of actions

Support internal focal point of control

Reduce short-run memory burden

During the interface design stage we will seek see these aureate regulations, when we will to plan the paradigm. We might confront some troubles while the designing, when we will follow these regulations, because all these regulations are for the normal users. In our research the users would be the visually impaired people but we will seek our best to follow these regulations because in our sentiment these regulations are evaluated and filtered after a long clip.

For the accomplishment of all the points that that are discussed above ( theoretical points ) there are some interaction design rules which could be followed, if these design rules are decently followed they will assist to make the demands of users. For interior decorators, these sorts of systems are challenge to plan for the effectual use.

There are guidelines presented by M. C. Maguire ( 1999 ) in an article “ A Review of User-Interface Design Guidelines for Public Information Kiosk Systems ” . These guidelines are nicely described, but the job in these guidelines is that they may non work decently for the disableds interacting with synergistic system. More things demands to be considered while planing such synergistic systems for disabled and specifically for the visually impaired userss. To get the better of this issue we will utilize Web Content Accessibility Guidelines ( WCAG ) 2.0 presented by Caldwell and Cooper ( 2008 ) , these guidelines provides a wide range of recommendations for development of more accessible web content ( ocular ) . If these guidelines followed decently they can assist for the better handiness for wide scope of people with disability disablements, including sightlessness and low vision, hearing loss and hearing loss, larning disablements, cognitive restrictions, limited motion, address disablements, radiosensitivity and combinations of these. ( Caldwell, Cooper Reid, Vanderheiden, 2008 ) We will seek to unite these two guidelines because our research demands this from us and to come up with a paradigm that works for visually impaired individuals.

Design Principles

The design principles that was proposed by Julie A Jacko for the ATM design for the aged people ( page 7 ) , these design rules may be considered to work for the visually impairment people. The design is based on the simpleness and helpfulness, which are as follow

Merely one operation requires at one screen

The user can execute the action in a measure by measure mode by merely one option at one screen, and for the visually impaired people this is really of import that this mode is followed to do things easy. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

The screen switch must be noticed

The shift from one screen to the following screen must be notified to the user so that the user can cognize that they are traveling to following measure and prepares for the following measure. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

The operation flow must be comprehendible

The flow of operations must be comprehendible into input and the end product, so that the user can utilize the system with assurance and verification. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

The screen information must be easy to read ( sufficient fount size and contrast )

The information on the screen must be easy to read for the user with the aid of sufficient fount size and contrast. Other methods could be use for this bringing of information to the user by voice or proclamation. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

Screen information must be simple as possible

Screen information must be kept every bit simple as possible for the user by simple text. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

The same content as proclaimed must be displayed on the screen

The information which is displayed on screen must be announced by voice. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

The proclamation must be done at the clip merely earlier altering to the following screen, and it must non reiterate

The timing of the proclamation is really of import it must be done merely earlier altering to the following screen, and it must non reiterate. ( Julie A Jacko, 2007 )

Guidelines for Public Information Kiosk

The guidelines for the design rules are as follow

Design Principles

It is so indispensable to follow those rules which can assist us to make the demands of clients for the ticketing machines. The saving of user demands involves screening out the intent of the machine. Who will utilize the system? What are user ‘s ends? And what jobs could be faced in the hereafter. It is of import to hold a symbol which says that the fining machine exists here. Maguire besides says that there should a manifestation on the screen for what the machine will be used for and how it will be usage, and there must be an option to halt the presentation at any clip ( Maguire, 1999 ) . It is indispensable for users, to put the machine at right tallness for easy entree of users. Particularly for those sitting in wheelchair and can non stand, be able to come and acquire in touch with machine. The wheelchair can be easy rolled near to the screen and keyboard, so that they can comfortably utilize the machine. Harmonizing to the suggestion ( Maguire, 1999, page 3 ) the maximal tallness of the machine should be between 70 and 120 centimeter from land. To do it comfort for a individual with low vision, the country around machine should be free from other equipment within a radius of 1.5 metres. It is of import to clearly demo the user how to come in or take payment card. Maguire suggests that a posting or a printed booklet is a great attack to demo users what system contains and to demo some simple stairss on how the system is used. If the ticket machine will be used by foreign tourers or by international user, it is of import to hold multiple linguistic communication option in the system. We will besides see these rules while planing paradigms for the visually impaired users ( Maguire, 1999 )


It is really of import that when user input some informations there should be security and privateness in the system. If there is deficiency of privateness in the system so the user will non fell friendly and confident in making the actions. If the user is certain about the informations privateness so he/she will be interact with machine smoothly and in friendly environment. The machine should be placed where the users should experience protected ( Maguire, 1999 ) .


It is of import that there must be aid option at each measure for user, if he/she feels vacillation at any measure, the users can easy acquire it. In this manner it will be called self service system without dependence or aid of other individuals. If users have job at any measure so the aid option and farther inside informations should transparent and simple in a manner which is apprehensible e.g. inquiry Markss. ( Maguire, 1999 )

Input signal

Different types of input devices are used for ticket machine system. The most general is keyboard, touch screen, unwritten address acknowledgments and trackball. ( Maguire, 1999 )

End product

Harmonizing to Maguire ( 1999 ) , text, images, linguistic communication, icons, colourss, artworks, voice and music should harmonizing to some criterions. The text should be no smaller than 16 points so that people with impaired vision have no jobs to read. The text should be modest and the contrast between text and background should be high so it can easy differentiated. The text should non be colored, linguistic communication should non be difficult, proficient footings should non be used. The colourss should non be embellished, at most four to five colourss should be used, and they should sooner be used in convenient ways, for illustration to separate between elements. The ruddy and green colourss should be avoided for the ground of colour sightlessness. The artworks should be high quality but it should non incorporate batch of colourss.

Harmonizing to Maguire ( 1999 ) if the machine is in an unfastened ambiance, where it is crowded the people will experience it hard to pass on with machine, it is executable to utilize with a French telephone. It will be good for people with impaired vision that can easy pass on with the receiving system. Volume control option should be at that place. The construction, pilotage and bill of fare should be really clear so that the user knows where in the system he / she is now. The user should ever hold an chance to travel back to the place page.

Menu Choices

The bill of fare choice is really of import facet of machine, if person does non understand it so, it is impossible to travel farther. The bill of fare picks must be outstanding and clear, so that the user knows approximately what the information or characteristics present in it. If the system is inactive for a twosome proceedingss so it should be automatically positioned on the place page once more, but it should go on in a proper and specific clip so that the user can non be frustrated. ( Maguire, 1999 )


The interface should be able to be swimmingly modified to users ‘ demands and accomplishments. They should besides be provided by the things that they can custom-make the interface on their ain. ( Maguire, 1999 )

Shneiderman ‘s Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design

“ Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design ” are claimed to take to good interaction design. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Strive for consistence

A stable concatenation of events should be necessary in parallel state of affairss ; the similar footings should be used in bill of fare, prompts, and facilitate screens ; and fixed bids should be engaged throughout. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Enable frequent users to utilize cutoffs

There should be some cutoffs for day-to-day users so they can easy execute their specific undertaking alternatively of utilizing long regular processs. Microsoft Word is one of illustration for this in which you can utilize ctrl +c and ctrl +z to copy or undo any event, so there should be installation for user to salvage clip. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Offer enlightening feedback

For every action to execute there should be some backup or indicant from the machine, which indicates and give you options that you can travel farther to the following measure. While for the concluding and sensitive actions related to bank passages, there must be text message on your screen or mail options that this action is performed successfully. There should be some record options for users to maintain it salvage with them. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Design duologue to give closing

The easy information should be at start, and enlightening options should be at the terminal. The system should be design in such a manner that the user is mentally prepared for what information it will inquire me in the following measure, so the user is certain and satisfies of his/her accomplishments. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Offer simple mistake managing

While planing a system, there should non be options of little mistakes, which are hard for user to observe and manage. If there are some minor and serious mistakes so the system should be able to observe the bugs and supply simple and intelligent mechanisms for taking of bugs. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Permit easy reversal of actions

There must be easy and dependable option in machine design to take and undo action without any vacillation. There must be salvaging option when you want to travel back and besides option to observe and screen out the stairss that you performed wrongly. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Support internal focal point of control

Experienced users ever wish that they should be in charge of the system while utilizing each action of it, alternatively of the system is in charge of user and execute every action. The designing of the system should be in a sense to do the users starting motor of action alternatively of the respondents of action. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Reduce short-run memory burden

The short term memory of the users should besides be reduced. The show of the system should be kept simpler, window-motion frequence should be reduced, and adequate clip should be given to codifications, mnemonics and sequences of actions. ( Shneiderman, 2008 )

Summary of Theoretical Findingss

The indispensable figures which can take us to our end to bring forth paradigm of fining system for visually impaired people and to reply the research inquiries, consists of cardinal constructs like design rule, booking systems or machine, system handiness, users with disabilities, system intelligence, actability, user demands, serviceability and user interaction. The capable countries relevant to our research inquiry contains countries like interaction design, system development, serviceability design, unreal intelligence, user-centred design, human computing machine interaction and synergistic booth system. These cardinal constructs and capable countries can assist us to acquire our end easy and reply our inquiries on theoretical base. We should aware of that for whom we are planing, or who will be good from it. We should maintain the users at forepart. The system must be user-centred, useable and the rules of human computing machine interaction must be considered. If we want to be winning in our end so we must be on proper path to do an first-class and friendly human computing machine interaction among the particular system and the users. The machineA?s user interface should be more users friendly and intelligent, that have voice reorganisation installation in it, and there should be specific keyboard in the system for visually impaired users. The users with ocular damage may confront many troubles while utilizing the public information booths like fining machine. These troubles can be input, end product, understanding the operation flow and exchanging from one measure to following measure etc, these troubles can be minimized or removed by following the proper designing rules for the visually impairment people.

How much intelligence may be used so that the system may acknowledge the user and execute undertaking harmonizing to the user demands?

This sub inquiry can be answer by the cardinal constructs like system intelligence, actability, userA?s demands and serviceability. We have evaluated these constructs in item and understand that if the visually impaired users need to interact with the system, the system needs to be intelligent, otherwise it might non be possible because the lone available communicative sense the user may hold will be the voice. With the aid of serviceability and actability the system can be made more useable and available to the users. For illustration an synergistic unreal intelligent agent can be used in the system to interact with the visually impaired users through voice and which can understand the users ‘ speech/voice and could answer consequently and intelligently to finish the end.

What sort of troubles the disability with ocular damage could confront while utilizing these machine and to an extent the solution of that troubles?

From research it is clear that there are many jobs which blind or visually impaired people faces during executing their day-to-day life events, because they ca n’t see absolutely as a normal homo. There are many jobs like utilizing laptops, driving autos, managing booth machines, and many more. For all of this they need particular attention from normal people. It is merely possible if scientists and research workers are traveling to contrive any new machine, they should take attention of people in sense of how people with disablements will manage the machine. There should be some particular type of keyboard and voice acknowledgment installation in it which can work for all type of users. The whole procedure for booking ticket should be efficient and flexible, so it will be easy for them to buy ticket or finish a undertaking. There should be option of doing size of font big, rapid climb, aid about every page and command the volume of the sound, so the user can easy set harmonizing to their demands.

How can the machine and user interact with each other?

The inquiry of the how the machine and the user interact with each other is possible to reply by understanding the capable country of the human computing machine interaction and from the construct of user interaction with the machine or the system. For the users who are non able to visualise the milieus the survey of the apprehension of the rules of the interaction between the user and the machine becomes more of import. The interaction should be made flexible and smooth, by the aid of geographic expedition of the user demand and their restraints in utilizing different sort of systems. The human computing machine interaction may dwell of three chief stairss i.e. input, processing and end product. The input from the user can be given to the machine by voice and the keyboard, the processing can be done measure by measure through voice ( or without voice ) between the user and the machine, and the end product will be the ticket, agenda or whatever the user required.

Arguments for an Empirical Survey

Since really small has been published on information booths in any forum, it has been necessary to develop a common model to analyse ( Slack, Rowley, 2002, page 70 ) . Till now the state of affairs about the same, as it is said earlier that this sort of work is non done specifically for the visually impaired people before, hence it is non necessary that the theoretical survey reply our research inquiries wholly. There are many inquiries that have non yet been answered in the theory for illustration does a visually impaired individual used fining machine or such sort of system? If Yes how? How they perceive the fining systems? There are many inquiries that need to be answered which can non be answered by the theoretical survey ; we can merely acquire the replies by interviews and the observations from the existent users who would utilize the system.

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