Make the Factors that Explain the Level of Female Labour Force Participation Increase in the UK Over the Past 40 Old ages Besides Explain Areas Difference within the UK—Comparative Study
Chapter 1: Introduction
Labor force engagement is one of the most important mentions to judge the state of affairs of labour force employment. Meanwhile a sustainable publicity degree of female labour force engagement is non merely profit for the societal position of adult females, but besides a publicity on societal and economic stableness ( Ling, 2013 ) . Over the past 30 to 40 old ages, most of the European developed states have experienced an betterment in female labour force engagement.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
We analyze old academic literature in this chapter to find the factors that cause the increasing degree of female labour force engagement in developed states, with a peculiar focal point on the UK over the past 40 old ages.
2.1. Birthrate and Female Labour Force engagement
Many surveies have examined the relationship between birthrate and female labour force engagement determinations after Becker’s ( 1965 ) innovator analysis of birthrate based on economic theory ( Grace, 2014 ) . Later some old and new surveies find that there is a negative relationship between the degree of labour force engagement of adult females and the figure of kids, particularly immature kids ( Mason, 1974 ; Mott & A ; Mott, 1984 ; Ni Bhrolchain, 1980 ; Sweet, 1981 ; Bernhardt, 1993 ) . For most European developed states, female parents who have two kids may lose 8 old ages of employment clip in the United Kingdom, 10 old ages in the Germany, 2 old ages in Sweden, etc. ( Joshi & A ; Davies, 1992. Mention: Ukil, 2015 ) . The theory which can explicate the consequence of birthrate on female labour force engagement is the chance cost of a mother’s clip. The chance of mother’s clip refers to holding kids meanwhile giving up the chance of net incomes from work ( Joshi, 1998 ) . Therefore, the chance cost of a mother’s clip has made adult females take to curtail childbearing deliberately and take part in their workings ( Bernhardt, 1993 ) . However, the negative relationship between birthrate and female labor force engagement is merely reflected in short term ( Ni Bhrolchain, 1980 ) . Ni Bhrolchain ( 1980 ) believed that immature adult females prefer to take attention of their immature kids by themselves. On the other manus, Moen ( 1989 ) stated that, for most adult females who have plants with rigorous working clip realise that it is difficult to hold balanced public presentation in both occupation and maternity. Hence, some of those adult females may make up one’s mind predate their occupations for baby sitting or postpone childbearing to execute satisfied on their occupations.
Additionally, Ukil ( 2015 ) stated that in the earlier literature, Gronau ( 1973 ) , Heckman ( 1974 ) and Heckman and Willis ( 1977 ) frequently regard the birthrate to be an exogenic variable in the labour supply of labor and net incomes maps ; nevertheless, in some ulterior literature, Schultz ( 1990 ) , Goldin ( 1994 ) and Xie ( 1997 ) argued that birthrate should be seem as endogenous consequence on the female labour force supply. “Estimating the consequence of birthrate on female labor market results is non a straightforward exercise.” ( Ukil, 2015 ) Personal penchant of taking traveling for work or childbirth and child care could be regarded as unseen variables on a woman’s labor force engagement determination and her birthrate determination. Ukil ( 2015 ) besides argued that a woman’s determination on her labour force engagement and birthrate could be determined together, like be aftering household, maintaining present income and future calling results. Hence, those factors are regarded as the endogenous consequence on the birthrate. Consequently, if the above sectors are non taken into consideration, the consequence of gauging birthrate can non be considered as the causal consequence on female labour force engagement. Furthermore, many literature suggested that the factors including societal policies on kid services, costs of kid attention and allowance of kid attention besides should be taken into consideration in the analysis of birthrate and female employment ( Blau, 1988 ; Gustafsson et Al, 1992 ; Connelly, 1992, 1996 ; Glass, 2004 ; Tekin, 2004 ; Viitanen, 2005 ; Wetzels, 2005 ) . Viitanen ( 2005 ) found that, in the United Kingdom, under the circumstance of higher costs of official early childhood instruction and lower of its procurability, immature mothers’ labour force engagement may worsen consequently ( Cite: Du, 2008 ) In this instance, some of the empirical grounds shows that, for some of the adult females who do non hold kid would prefer non childbearing and so that alternatively take part in the working. Furthermore, based on the 1993 study informations, adult females who are third educated holding more than one kid participate in the labor force because they could afford to pay for the big sum of measures on child care ( Bratti, 2003. Mention: Grace, 2014 )
2.2. Educational Attainment and Female Labour Force Engagement
The degree of the instruction that adult females received could be considered as one of the other factors on female labour force engagement. A broad sum of bing literature supply some empirical grounds that educated female have higher dialogue ability within their family ( Hoddinott & A ; Lawrence, 1995 ) ; those who are employed besides would wish to pass a greater proportion of their income on their child care to accomplish higher quality of kid results ( Nam, 1991 ; Geeta, 1997 ; Tuttle & A ; Garr, 2009 Cite: Edward & A ; Paul, 2011 ) . On the other manus, these writers provided position that increased female instruction and their labour force engagement might cut down the snap of allotment of mother’s clip on child care. In footings of this facet, Guy ( 1976 ) argued that the degree of instruction of adult females could impact the female labor force engagement from two facets. A adult females receives a higher degree of instruction, she may hold more possible ability to lend to the development of her state. Consequently, the pay that she can obtain would be higher, meanwhile the chance costs of non take parting in work would be higher consequently ( Karen & A ; Dindial, 2012 ) ; Guy ( 1976 ) besides stated that, “without instruction or the associated entree to most signifiers of vocational preparation adult females have been unable to procure skilled or even many semi-skilled jobs” . Hence, higher educated adult females with more possible accomplishments are easier to accommodate to the transform of labour market and easier to acquire occupations. For the above grounds, educational attainment, in general, is positively correlated with labour force engagement ( Bowen & A ; Finegan, 1966 ; Sobol, 1973 ; Sweet, 1973 ) In add-on, Lam and Duryea ( 1999. Mention: Edward & A ; Paul, 2011 ) stated that higher educated adult females had extremely concern on the quality alternatively of measure of kids. In this instance, they believed that those female parents prefered to take part in the labor market to derive more income to afford higher quality on child care.
Though many literature point out that adult females instruction has strong positively influence on their choosing participating in the labour force market, there are still some conflicting grounds and sentiments ( Edward & A ; Paul, 2011 ) . For case, Adamchak and Mbizvo ( 1994 ) pointed out unemployed adult females had fewer kids than those who were employed. Furthermore, while instruction could raise the possibility for adult females to take part in the labor market, there must be some other factors be givening to cut down the engagement, particularly for those adult females who married ( Guy, 1976 ) . A adult female who is educated prefers to get married with an educated adult male. Which means that her hubby has a higher possible incomes. So, in this state of affairs, husband’s higher net incomes can be regarded as a factors to cut down the inducement of the adult female to take part in the labor market ( Holcombe, 1971 ) . Therefore, to a certain extent, instruction attainment of adult females has an reverse consequence on female labour force engagement.
2.3. Engage Inequality and Female Labour Force Engagement
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- Joshi, H. , & A ; Davies, H. ( 1992 ) . Day attention in Europe and mothers’ forgone net incomes. International Labour Review, 132 ( 6 ) , 561–79.
- Heckman, J.J. , & A ; Willis, R.J. ( 1977 ) . A beta-logistic theoretical account for the analysis of consecutive labour force engagement by married adult females. The Journal of Political Economy, 85, 27–58.
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- Gronau, R. ( 1973 ) . The intrafamily allotment of clip: The value of the housewives’ clip. The American Economic Review, 63 ( 4 ) , 634–51.
- Goldin, C. ( 1994 ) . Understanding the gender spread: An economic history of American adult females. NBER Book Series: Long-run Factors in Economic Development, Oxford University Press.
- Schultz, T.P. ( 1990 ) . Testing the neoclassical theoretical account of household labour supply and birthrate. Journal of Human Resources, 25 ( 4 ) , 599–634.
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