Performance may be defined as the out pot of a given employee towards the realization of a given goal in an organization. It encompasses the managerial, supervision and individual worker’s input to achieve the set goals of a company (Mervat et al, 2001).
Performance holds on the motivational, ethical and legal frameworks in a workplace which provides the basic systems of succeeding in getting results that are intended. Performance appraisal is a structured formal interaction between a supervisor and a junior officer in which the performance of the junior officer (subordinate) is assessed and discussed to basically identify strengths, weakness and possible opportunities for improvement or evaluation of employee’s output to establish whether he or she contributes towards value creation of the firm (Ricky, 2002).
The HR performance appraisal is designed to meet four major issues: first, give feedback to the individual employee’s performance. Second, be a mechanism that modifies employee’s behaviors to working habits. Third, provide sufficient data that are useful for decision making in relation to promotion, bonuses, transfers, compensation and termination. Fourth, provide a basis for senior workers to train and coach junior workers (Mervat et al, 2001).
Essentially appraisals results are used by organization to determine the reward outcomes by establishing the very hardworking employee who should accorded with the bonus, promotion or even pay increase as a form of motivating every worker in the organization to increase their out puts (Yoav, 2005).
In performance appraisal, human resource managers in collaboration with all the departments of the organization defines the organizations needs and constantly determine the number of the work force and assess the performance of the work force basically for various reasons. Firstly, the organizations develop employees’ performance appraisal plans that serve as a checklist on the performance of individual worker basing on the review of the current performance and what can be done to improve in the future (Susan et al. 2005).
In developing the employees’ performance appraisal, the organization, identify their potential by recognizing the talents harbored by the employee and look and ways of harnessing the talents by filling them in vacancies that they can perform better as deemed by the human resource manager. This would mean that they work in sections where their talents are used better and hence their skills are developed. Similarly, the organization plans for performance appraisal by ideally providing an equitable method of linking payments to various personnel (Yoav, 2005).
The whole nature of performance appraisal based on human resource strategic planning whereby jobs are designed for different personnel (Ricky, 2002). This is done before the recruitment by describing the job needed to be done by an employer and the specific requirements needed in fulfilling the job. Thereafter, the human resource manager attracts employee by developing a pool of job candidates, recruit them in accordance to the constitution of the organization with the purpose of providing services to the companies.
In organization with performance appraisal various elements and review strategies are put in place to check the entire progress of performance of employees’ strategies in which this appraisal aims is in most cases a phenomenon of monitoring. In this particular case, monitoring is about the consistent measuring of performance and providing the feedback on a continuous process to all employees on their progress towards reaching their target goals in terms of the organizational production (Li, 2001). According to (Mervat et al., 2001) monitoring gives an opportunity to assess the employees’ progress and check the possible loose links and if possible avert them.
The monitoring procedure is based on staff recommendation which encourage what is called 360 – degree feedback. This monitoring system relies on communication on the sources of input, private issues and the various weight questions and answers all in the light of putting on track the whole logistics of organizations performance (Li, 2001).
Monitoring uses policy documents that are ideal essential in the 360 – feedback system policy documents summarize the provision of legislative, regularity and the policies of the government in relation to the feedback system, which should be continuous. In addition it stands on the policy perspective on the customer service standards. In respect to this, the regulative, legislative and government policies relating to customer service standards.
The monitoring system enables a management of a workplace to review important reason o address marginal performance and equips the supervisors to help them improve on the marginal performance (Omachonu, 2005). It is done through his description of the implementation experiences and identifies which additional performance elements should be used to plan, measure, rate and reward a term’s performance.
The evaluation strategies facilitates in monitoring depends on the data collected regarding the successes of an organizations recruitment and induction process. For instance, the performance levels of employees who were hired in the previous 2 years are helpful in the assessment of data that monitors the impact of changes in recruitment strategies (Kessler et al., 2007).
Monitoring, have several advantages to performance appraisal both to the employee and organizations. For instance, through proper monitoring, employees gain a better conception of their role by understanding how they should improve on their weaknesses and gain training accesses to develop their status and focus on the prospects and directions of their roles and career (Yoav, 2005).
The organization on the other hand achieves a lot by getting the opportunity to hear and exchange views from their workforce on how to move on (John and Jeffery, 20003). This aids in planning, identifying and assessing the potentials of the work force by gathering reviewing succession plans and updating the employees’ records in terms of achievement and new competences.
Developing employees is a comprehensive training for the employees. It is fully accustom set to help managers, executives, supervisors enhance their skills and identify individual differences in regard to communication, instruction and enable employees develop their performance, informal development of employees is a casual approach that requires no specified and structured training goals and does not hold to the perception of whether the training needs evaluation or not (Susan et al., 2005).
This sort development is rather natural that several employees do not realize they are being developed. It is less effective than formal development especially in the case where an employee should be learning a specific skill in a specified frame. The structure of informal development is not clear because, in this form of development, employees engage in informal discussions about a certain topic and participate in meetings or listen to a speaker on a given discussion (Li, 2001).
Formal development is based on structured standards that may include establishing certain objectives to be met in the training using clear art methods to develop the employer and applying certain evaluation measures at the end of the development. This method takes the form of courses, work shops, seminars and training.
Developing of employees is a continuous process because it contributes to assisting the employee for other job opportunities and increases his competence in the organization business plan (Kessler et al., 2007). This program is informal because there are several challenges that face the organizations daily life and formal because the organization may want to move to a higher realization of set target through a systematic approach and a documented plan.
Rating is a regular review of an employee’s performance in an organization using numerical or scalars whereby supervisors score individuals against some numbers of objectives. Rating relies on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness (Mervat et al 2001). In this review, clarifications on the employees interests and needs and his specific areas he should concentrate on need to be done.
It provides judgments on the work performance with a view to regulate reward allocation, promoting, transfers and foster work improvement and other development opportunities. It identifies problems and develops concise methods to air the problems through a feedback mechanism. Rating overly dwells on behavioural aspect and analyzes performance (Li, 2001).
Traditionally, rating was done by manager when the line of communication was left open and employees shared opinions, ideas and information with the manager (John and Jeffery, 2005). This gave the management the cues to use in judging employees on their performance. However, this review had several short falls that, ostensibly, many managers misinterpreted the job demands and conditions in respect to the employees. Rating was therefore structured to look at the whole sphere of performance.
This includes, exceptional performance in all areas of responsibility, planning objectives according to certain set standards (Omachonu 2005). The expectation of job requirements was to be met. This considered the minimum requirements of a given job.