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Operating Systems

Mac OS

The official site of Apple Inc. sums up the Mac OS in the undermentioned words:

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“ Mac OS X is the universe ‘s most advanced operating system. Built on a rock-solid UNIX foundation and designed to be simple and intuitive, it ‘s what makes the Mac advanced, extremely secure, compatible, and easy to utilize. Quite merely, there is nil else like it. ”

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Introduction: Mac OS is the operating system developed by Apple Inc specifically for their Macintosh line of computing machine systems. At the clip of its first visual aspect on the phase of OS in 1984, it was undisputedly the most advanced operating system. It is by and large credited with the thought of revolutionising the user experience by the manner of GUI ( Graphical User Interface ) . Even its earliest of versions contained support for this functionality, leting users to utilize mouse for the intents of indicating and choosing and included some default public-service corporation applications that took advantage of this new user interface. Due to this ground, it rapidly became one of the most successful and popular operating system for the mean place users. However, it is to be noted that it ab initio was known as “System software” because it formed an built-in portion of the Macintosh Computers, nevertheless with the transition of clip, it was named “Mac OS” .

Licensed ROMs to run Mac OS: The early Macs had no difficult discs ( since they were expensive in 1984 ) and merely supported floppy thrusts. Since the storage infinite was really limited, therefore cardinal parts of the system were stored on ROM in the motherboard to liberate up the infinite on the floppy thrusts. This architecture allowed a wholly graphical OS interface at the lowest degree. At the same clip, it ensured that merely Apple computing machines ( with copy-righted ROMs ) could run Mac OS since it depended on nucleus system package in ROM.

The Mac OS supports a minimum figure of file constructions. It expects files to incorporate two parts: a resource fork and a information fork. The resource fork contains information of involvement to the user. For case, it holds the labels of any buttons displayed by the plan. A foreign user may desire to re-label these buttons in his ain linguistic communication, and the Mac OS provides tools to let alteration of informations in the resource fork. The information fork contains plan codification or informations – the traditional file contents.

Features:

1. Dock: Possibly, the most seeable and typical characteristic of the Mac OS which has been chapified in all the other runing systems is the Dock. The Mac OS uses dock to entree applications, unfastened paperss, launch plans on the fly and at the same clip, it adds most of the eye-candy to the Mac OS. The latest characteristic of stacking files and booklets in the dock has improved it further, work outing the most widely-circulated issue of infinite restriction in the dock. A study shows it is the most endearing characteristic of Mac OS and therefore has been incorporated ( kind of ) in the latest edition of Microsoft Windows i.e. Windows7.

2. iLife: Microsoft Windows ( that holds most of the portion in the desktop market ) comes with a clean install, i.e. we have to put in the necessary applications ourselves ( except the browser and that excessively, for obvious grounds ) . However, Mac OS like Linux distributions comes bundled with an application suite named iLife. Apple ‘s iLife ( iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, iChat ) is the best application suite that can come with any OS. It is first-class at what it does. Its applications manage and form our paperss, exposures, pictures, music expeditiously.

3. Highly secure by design: Mac OS X does n’t acquire viruses and protects itself from other malicious applications. It was built for the Internet in the Internet age. Even better, it does n’t decelerate down the computing machine with changeless security qui vives and pecking screens.

4. Compatibility: Probably the greatest alteration that a user experiences during passage from Windows to Mac OS is that unlike Windows, Mac OS can natively cover with the most-popular applications and file-type extensions like PDF, JPG, MP3, Microsoft Office paperss, spreadsheets, presentations etc.

5. Smart Eject: In most of the operating systems, expulsion of a thrust, disc takes topographic point instantly and any procedure that may hold been utilizing it becomes unresponsive which increases the chance of hanging the whole system. An extra job caused by this is the loss of valuable informations. However Mac OS foremost checks the external volumes to see if they are in usage by any procedure and notifies the user of the position of the external thrusts if they are busy.

6. Quick Expression: The official Mac OS site says “Opening files is so last year” . With the latest edition of Mac OS ( Snow Leopard ) , Apple has introduced a new characteristic names “Quick Look” . Using it, we can hold a furtive peep of the full files which may include multipage paperss, long picture etc. This characteristic is highly utile in the state of affairs when we need to supervise assorted plans but do non necessitate to clutter our desktop with unwanted Windowss.

7. Time Machine: Time Machine has relieved the users of executing any backup of the informations through some 3rd party packages. It automatically saves up-to-date transcripts of files, music, picture, paperss, applications, scenes – virtually everything on a Mac. If the user loses any of his informations, he can easy “go back in time” to retrieve the files. However, the advantage that Time Machine enjoys over its Windows opposite number System Restore is that the user can really verify the contents of the file before reconstructing it.

Windows

Windows is an operating system developed by Microsoft. It emerged on the scene during the clip when Apple ‘s Mac OS was doing mammoth paces in the OS market and UNIX-based OS were giving it a tough competition. In short, it was the clip of great competition and competition. However, due to its advanced thoughts, its easiness of usage for the Personal computers combined with aggressive selling on the portion of Microsoft and some internal problems in the Apple Inc. paved the manner for Windows to take the market. At present, it is easy the most popular operating system in the desktop computing machines market.

History: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft launched “Interface Manager” undertaking. It achieved small popularity since it was non a complete operating system, but instead an extension to DOS environment and therefore inherited its defects. In 1983, Microsoft decided to upgrade this undertaking under the new name of “Windows” which was thought to be more appealing to the clients. Windows promised easy-to-use interface and support for multitasking. Windows 1.0 was released in 1985 and had mean gross revenues. The subsequent versions improved the GUI tremendously and were speedy to react to the latest promotions in the hardware market. Microsoft and IBM reached a trade under which each IBM Personal computer came pre-installed with Windows. Personal Computers ( Personal computers ) were a fresh thought. They proved to be a large concern. IBM ( because of its size and repute for quality merchandises ) scored a lead in the market, and therefore most of the computing machine plans written for the Personal computer market were really being written for Windows. Hence Windows shortly eclipsed all its challengers and established it s domination which continues even today.

Windows 7: Windows 7 is the latest release of the Microsoft Windows. It was released on October 22, 2009. Windows 7 introduced some great new characteristics ( which are described below ) piece at the same clip, bettering the tools shipped with earlier versions. It received extremely positive reappraisals, and it surpassed the portion of Apple ‘s Snow Leopard ( the latest version of Mac OS ) in merely two hebdomads. It is the highest grossing pre-order in Amazon ‘s history.

Features:

1. Taskbar: This characteristic is sole to the latest edition of Windows i.e. Windows 7. In this version, Microsoft has wholly revamped its taskbar, which now displays icons merely of the plans presently in executing whereas old versions used to demo text labels tiring names of the said plans besides. An extra functionality that this revised version of taskbar provides is that the user can now “pin” the plans most normally used to the taskbar, to establish them on the fly. The user can besides make “jump lists” of the commonly used files and applications.

2. Catch: Snap is likely the biggest betterment in the manner the Windowss are organized in all the major runing systems. It had made the procedure of resizing and set uping a window on the screen laughably simple. Using this characteristic of Windows 7, the user can now merely drag the boundary lines of a window to the border of a screen to put it. Windows will automatically place and spread out the window or expose them side by side ( if more than one ) depending on the border the user selects.

3. HomeGroup: HomeGroup has revolutionized the manner files, paperss etc are shared among assorted Personal computers. It allows the user to easy portion their informations without making concerns about privateness. It is password protected. Hence one can put up one watchword for all the PCs and get down sharing.

4. Play To: This new characteristic of Windows 7 allows the user to easy play the music, exposure, and pictures from the Personal computer to media devices connected to the place web. It removes the fusss of first reassigning the information to the media device. The user can now play what he wants on WHERE he wants.

5. Live Taskbar Previews: In Windows Vista, if we hover over a plan on the taskbar we can see a screenshot/preview of that peculiar plan, but we ca n’t interact with the plan. We need to first do the plan window active to interact with it. With Windows 7, Microsoft has gone a measure further. Now if the user hovers over the plan country on the taskbar, in add-on to see the thumbnail prevue, and execute assorted maps ( provided by the application ) straight, therefore salvaging clip.

6. Shingle: Suppose we have a littered desktop. A batch of plan Windowss are unfastened and need to be minimized. See the fuss and attempt required in minimising all the plan windows except the one the user requires. Windows 7 simplifies this undertaking. Now if the user wants to concentrate on one specific window, he can make so by minimising all other Windowss taking advantage of the Shake characteristic. To make so, the user needs to snap, keep down so sneak button and agitate the mouse. A subsequent “shake” will reconstruct all the Windowss that were antecedently minimized.

7. Peek: Through Windows 7 “Peek” , the user can now hold an X-ray vision so that he can see through all the littered Windowss straight to the desktop. The user needs to travel the mouse to a particular button placed at the bottom-right of the screen to do all the Windowss transparent, uncovering the desktop contents. Through this characteristic, the user can besides look into conditions, traffic studies, new mails etc through assorted appliances in the Windows Sidebar that is displayed on the desktop.

8. Improved User Account Control: With Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced a User Account Control characteristic that prompts the user if a plan tries to compose some information to the register or the system thrust. Hailed by Microsoft as the characteristic that would set up a important battle to the malwares, it really received rather negative reappraisals owing to the ground that it proved to be “frustrating” for the users by invariably “annoying” them. In Windows 7, Microsoft has improved this characteristic now giving the user the pick to expose the figure of prompts or set file/disk permissions therefore doing the user experience pleasant and at the same clip, forestalling any potentially harmful plan to damage the system.

Symbian OS

Symbian is an operating system that is developed and designed by Symbian Ltd. specifically for nomadic devices and smartphones. It is the universe ‘s most used Mobile runing system, accounting for 45 % of smartphone gross revenues. A careful estimation shows that presently Symbian tallies on 170 million smartphones.

History: The history of Symbian runing system dates back to the yearss of early nomadic calculating. In 1980, Psion was founded by David Potter. It was really the trade name name for the designs of game and office productiveness package for Sinclair ‘s Personal computers. These plans led to the debut of Psion Organizer in 1984 which was the universe ‘s first hand-held computing machine. The Psion package base and the industry/market ( phone makers Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia ) decided to join forces which led to the historic formation of Symbian in 1998. Hence EPOC ( the household of OS developed by Psion for portable devices ) was officially renamed as Symbian. By 2006, Symbian Software had achieved so much popularity that it crossed the barrier of 100 million phone gross revenues. In 2008, events took a new bend and the following measure of Symbian development took topographic point. The full Symbian Ltd. ( including all its assets ) was acquired by Nokia and Symbian platform was created as open-source package. In this respect, Symbian Foundation was established.

Features:

1. C++ : By and large, the scheduling linguistic communication C++ is used in most of the Symbian operating systems and its subsequent applications ( it must nevertheless be noted that Symbian OS can besides utilize Python, Perl, VB ) . This is the paramount ground of the popularity of the Symbian OS and its huge figure of applications.

2. Three basic design regulations: Symbian operating system was built in such a manner that it follows the undermentioned three basic design regulations.

a. The unity and security of user informations is of paramount importance

B. Response clip must non be every bit little as possible

c. All resources are scarce

3. Improved Messaging: With a traditional Mobile phone, we can stay in touch with our contacts by merely naming them or directing them a text message. With Symbian OS, nevertheless, the pick is eternal. In add-on to the two basic characteristics described above, we can utilize Skype, Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo, AOL, Google Talk, Facebook. MySpace, Twitter and many more ways to remain in touch.

4. Low energy ingestion: In the field portable devices, it is a affair of ordinary common sense that the 1 with low power ingestion would be the victor, since it is of paramount importance. The advantages of Symbian prevarication largely in the stableness of devices and the low energy ingestion. The challengers of Symbian like Windows Mobile are catching up on this characteristic now.

5. Application Speed: For the most common applications, the application velocity is so alert that it can safely be termed as “near instant” . The camera is really speedy to lade. Although Nokia puts all of the applications, music, picture, games etc in its Ovi shop, therefore one easy exchange classs rapidly. In short, Symbian OS is a fast operating system even on a slow processor.

6. Application Handiness: This alone is the characteristic that can give Symbian OS a clean border over its other challengers every bit good as tough competition to the Apple ‘s iPhone. Smartphones powered by Symbian OS semen bundled with a big figure of applications. Due to the scheduling linguistic communication characteristic described above, there are applications sing any class the user desires and more are being added everyday particularly when Nokia has decided to open-source the Symbian OS.

7. Multi-tasking: Multi-tasking is phenomenal in Symbian powered phones. Normally such phones can pull off six or eight apps at the same time without any jobs even on a limited memory like 128MB. Besides with the latest such phones, one can easy detect that the resource-heavy apps like games preserve their province if another window is activated.

8. Media Support: Symbian S60 supports a huge figure of audio formats, merely about anything that a user can conceive of and even so, a few more. It supports RealVideo, Windows Media Video, MPEG-4, Flash Video, WAV, MP3, RealAudio. As for exposure formats, the OS natively supports BMP, JPG, GIF, PNG, TIFF, WMF etc.

9. Impossible Standby Time: Suppose if you have a smartphone, so as every other phone it will necessitate to be recharged. However, now consider that you travel frequently. This is where this peculiar characteristic of Symbian OS comes into drama. Stand-by clip is the length of clip the device could last, logged onto your phone web but with the screen blanked and with no existent use, before a to the full charged battery ran out and the smartphone would no longer turn on. The standby clip of Symbian OS phones is amazing. The battery is closer to full ( 6 out of 7 bars ) after ‘5 ‘ yearss of ‘on ‘ clip which is really impressive.

10. Open-Source: Now that Nokia has decided to open-source Symbian operating system, genuinely sky is the bound. Because anyone and everyone is free to do their ain applications and contribute to the codification, non merely a hired squad of developers. With all this possible, imaginativeness is the lone bound to what is available on the device.

11. Mobile Television: Exploitation Symbian OS smartphones, we can watch and portion YouTube picture and some applications will even allow us watch Television whenever and wherever we are, in full screen, in audio merely manners, via Bluetooth French telephones and more. We can besides enter our favourite plans, connect it to some home-video system and watch it in a bigger screen.

Linux

The popular online encyclopaedia defines Linux as:

“Linux is a generic term mentioning to UNIX-like computing machine runing systems based on the Linux kernel”

Linux is an operating system holding a strong UNIX foundation. Initially it had the image of a mere subset of UNIX characteristics, nevertheless today Linux has expanded to include much of the UNIX functionality.

History: Linux undertaking was initiated by a Finnish pupil Linus Torvalds while he was go toing the University of Helsinki. The development was carried on the then-popular MINIX operating system and Torvalds intended to make an copycat to entree the big UNIX waiters of the university. Subsequently, he realized that his difficult work has the potency of being an existent operating system meat. He made the determination of doing it open-source and announced his work on a Usenet newsgroup. He besides ported it to the GNU General Public License and invited others to modify, better the codification and give suggestions for its betterment. Hence the spirit of Linux is that of open-source and it is the consequence of the unblinking attempts of 1000s of single partisans instead than a squad of hired developers.

Design: On the whole, Linux resembles any other traditional UNIX execution. It is a multiuser, multitasking runing system with tools compatible with UNIX environment. Today Linux has grown to work on most of the platforms, nevertheless ab initio it was developed specifically on and for Personal computer architecture. Its development was triggered by single partisans instead than professional OS applied scientists, hence in the beginning it squeezed every bit much functionality as possible from the highly limited beginnings. However as the difficult discs became a platitude and memory became powerful, Linux expanded its functionality base.

Features:

1. Centralized Application Installation: This is a great advantage in utilizing Linux distributions. Since the spirit of Linux is open-source, hence it promotes other open-source applications. All the Linux distributions have a centralised application installer when 1 can happen application of a peculiar class among the 1000s and put in the 1 he desires. No demand to advert that all of the applications are open-source excessively.

2. Regular Releases: Ubuntu ( the most popular desktop Linux distribution ) and others have a predefined regular release rhythm. Normally their major versions are released at least one time in a twelvemonth ( two in instance of Ubuntu ) so that the users may be protected against the security loopholes ( if any ) . In contrast to this, Windows ( the taking desktop OS ) has no regular release rhythm and depends to a great extent upon the Windows Update Manager and Service Packs which the user can efficaciously ignore/disable.

3. Super Global User ( Root ) : The norm ( technically talking, LIMITED ) user in Windows can still carry through much undertakings in Windows. So much so that a awful virus ( through some e-mail fond regard ) can stultify the whole system. However the manner Linux distributions are designed, this ca n’t be the instance with them. Every ‘malicious ‘ action requires the user to input the SUDO ( root ) watchword, therefore doing the user aware that the plan can be potentially harmful. This characteristic has been introduced in the latest editions of Windows, but as it turns out, it has received rather negative reappraisals. This is because of the ground that it ‘annoyed ‘ and ‘frustrated ‘ the users by invariably seting up pecking screens.

4. Pricing: The latest edition of Windows have a batch of different versions therefore making confusion for the users as to what edition is suited for them. They have to maintain in cheque which characteristics would be included in a specific edition and the differences in others. Even the ‘Home Basic ‘ versions cost $ 149 which is manner excessively much for the mean user. Linux provides an first-class and cost-efficient option. Not merely wholly Linux distributions are free ( courtesy open-source doctrine ) , instead the user is lawfully entitled to modify, better the system and redistribute it. The popular Ubuntu distribution is besides delivered to your doorsill perfectly FREE OF COST by the Canonical Ltd.

5. Installed applications: The most typical characteristic that the user experiences if he switches from Windows to Linux is the assortment of applications that come bundled with it. Windows comes clean except a browser ( and that excessively for obvious grounds ) and some really basic public-service corporations. However Linux distributions come packaged with exposure editors, instant couriers, assortment of games, the complete office suite, audio/visual tools etc. And of class the user can foster put in any package utilizing the Centralized Application Installer ( see point 1 ) .

6. Support: One will ever hold that one is non an expert. At some phase in clip, he will necessitate the support. This is where Linux enjoys complete high quality over Windows and Mac OS. With Linux, we have a support of a immense community via forums and plentifulness of dedicated web sites. Just post your job to any forum and within 10 proceedingss you will be flooded with suggestions. With Windows and Mac OS, the support does n’t come free.

7. Command-Line: Although Linux distributions come with some first-class desktop directors like KDE, GNOME, Xfce etc nevertheless the option of bid line will ever stay an priceless tool for disposal intents. But it is non necessary. The naive user can travel on utilizing GUI for his full life-time. In Linux, GUI is implemented as a procedure, while in Windows it is the dedicated portion of the meat.

8. Live prevue: Another characteristic of Linux is that it is portable. The user can maintain it on a Cadmium or a USB thrust and transport it with him wheresoever he goes. He merely needs to boot a computing machine from the peculiar device to get down utilizing Linux, a characteristic non available with Windows and Mac OS.

Solaris

Solaris is a UNIX-based operating system developed by Sun Microsystems as a replacement to their SunOS.

History: SunOS was a UNIX based operating system for workstation and waiter computing machine systems. SunOS is used merely to mention to versions 1 to 4 of SunOS. These versions were based on BSD UNIX. In 1987, AT & A ; T and Sun decided to join forces to unify the most popular UNIX based OS of the clip. Subsequently in 1991, Sun announced that the newer editions ( Sun OS 5 and onwards ) of its operating system would exchange their base from BSD UNIX to the SVR4 ( System V Release 4 ) which was the consequence of the joint venture of Sun and AT & A ; T. At this point, Sun besides decided to take a new trade name name for its OS, sing it would be more popular and appealing towards the clients. Hence “Solaris” was born.

OpenSolaris: In 2005, Sun Microsystems made a bold determination and decided to open-source some of the Solaris codification. With the transition of clip, the company has shown its committedness to this cause by bit by bit increasing the open-source codification base. However, it is to be noted that non all of Solaris is open-sourced because some of the codification is still owned by AT & A ; T and other companies. Ian Murdock, laminitis of Debian, was hired to head “Project Indiana” , which aimed at bring forthing a OpenSolaris distribution. It was released in 2008.

Features:

1. Handiness: This is one of the most typical characteristics of Solaris. It implies that particular characteristics of Solaris enable it to add new capableness or to repair jobs without holding to re-start the system. Hence it is highly “stable” .

2. Scalability: Scalability is the ability of the computing machine system to go on to work good when it is changed in size or volume in order to run into the user ‘s demand. Most merely it implies that “if you move to a larger processor, your applications will non merely go on to run, but provide an increased performance” . Solaris is known for its scalability particularly on SPARC systems.

3. ZFS: The new ZFS ( Zettabyte File System ) is a radical file system that is alone since it basically changes the manner file systems are administered. Zfs has been designed to be robust, scalable and easier to administrate. It supports high storage capacities, snapshots, uninterrupted unity look intoing with automatic fix etc.

4. Grid Container: With this exciting new engineering, the decision maker can put up disc dividers for every user in such a manner that each user works with an operating system of his ain. In this manner several users can portion the system without perturbation. However this does non bog down the system and 1000s of applications are managed efficaciously.

5. Secure: Solaris includes some of the universe ‘s most advanced security characteristics. It is advertised by Sun as ‘the most unafraid OS on planet ‘ . It protects the user informations by allowing merely the privileges set by the User and Process Rights Management. Besides System decision makers can observe possible onslaughts on their systems by supervising for alterations to register information.

6. Platform: Solaris is to the full supported on SPARC and x86/x64 based systems and that excessively from the giants of the makers like Sun, HP, Dell, Lenovo etc. From the first twenty-four hours it was released, Solaris has maintained a individual beginning codification base. It has historically been tightened with Sun ‘s SPARC hardware nevertheless with clip, it has besides supported x86 systems.

7. DTrace: DTrace is more powerful than any diagnostic tool. It is an first-class dynamic tracing model for trouble-shooting the web and tuning system public presentation in existent clip. It lets us see our systems in manner that reveals systemic jobs and repairing issues that antecedently went unsolved.

8. Predictive Self Healing: Solaris runing system introduces a new architecture for edifice and deploying systems and services capable of Predictive Self-Healing. This characteristic has advanced background mistake sensing, rectification, and recovery, which protects the system in instance of its failure.

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