Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. Teachers must often choose between different courses to follow and deferent strategies to follow. 1. 3 Communication Communication is when a teacher gives a lesson to a learner through speech or writing on the board and the recipient responds. 1. 4 Motivation The process through which the teacher provides pupils with motives to encourage them to achieve the goals set for the class. It is also an inner force that drives people to fulfill certain needs. 1. Leadership Leadership consists of actions that help the group to complete its tasks successfully ND maintain effective working relationships among its members. Question 2. 2. 1 Discuss the following classroom management styles: 2. 1. 1 Autocratic classroom management style This is a teacher-centered style where the role and leadership of the teacher play an Important part. When dealing with pupil behavior this teacher will Intervene and try to control the behavior of the pupils. The teacher is mainly interested in the pupils’ completion of tasks and learning performance. . 1. 2 Democratic classroom management style It correlates with an interactive teaching style. This teaching style requires that searchers should have a sound knowledge of their subject and of human nature so that they can encourage their pupils to participate actively. The control of pupil behavior is jointly controlled by the teacher and the pupils. 2. 2 Describe FIVE styles of conflict management which the educators can use to handle conflict in their classrooms. Avoidance: avoiding conflict Is a short-term solution because the conflict will not go away.
Sometimes, however, avoidance could be a temporary measure to calm emotions. * Giving in or accommodating: teachers who badly want the pupils to accept them use this style. With this style the real differences are underemphasized. Sometimes teachers have to give in to avoid hostility in the classroom and to ensure that the work can get done. * Domination: teachers who want to Impose their will on pupils use this style. In the long run this style Is seldom effective, although teachers sometimes have to dominate. * Compromise or settle: this style is marked by a search for compromises and settlement.
The teacher will try to meet everyone halfway and to let the majority view prevail. Because a settlement might not satisfy everybody, the dissatisfaction could again cause conflict at a later stage. Integrate or collaborate: this style is also known as the problem-solving aspects and human relations in the classroom affect the way in which pupils perceive the classroom atmosphere. Pupils’ perceptions of interpersonal relations and order in the classroom cultivate a particular atmosphere. Teachers can combine the structural and human relations aspects by managing their classrooms effectively in order to create a positive atmosphere.
The responsibility of a teacher can be described as follows: It is the teacher’s role to establish and maintain a positive learning environment that has structure, expectations and consistent enforcement of hose expectations. It is also necessary that the environment be warm and supportive, demonstrating care and concern about children. A proper balance between the structural and the human relations aspects required in every teaching- learning situation with a positive atmosphere. Maintaining a balance between the structural and human relations aspects requires a holistic approach to classroom management.
Such an approach takes both the structural as well as the human relations aspects of the teaching learning situation into account. The combination and integration of these two dimensions represent the actual structure of the lassoer situation, which includes all areas of the teacher’s management task. A comprehensive approach to classroom management enables teachers to use their professional expertise to bring about effective teaching and learning in a structured classroom situation in which positive human relations prevail. 2. 4 Why have a classroom discipline policy?
Every classroom needs a set of procedures to manage the array of activity that students create. Occasionally the expectations of teachers and the actions of students will conflict. Many teachers (myself included) consider it important to view such class expectations during the first days of school, especially expectations related to student discipline. A classroom discipline policy is a codification of these expectations, a point of reference for teachers and students throughout the year. Teaching and learning are HIGHLY contextual. What works in one class environment may not work in all.
While I would argue that certain practices work almost everywhere (e. G. Teacher-parent communication, active listening), myriad systems and practices can be applied to make your classroom a great place for teachers and students. So THINK! What is best for your students? Do your expectations conform with those of the school (it can be problematic if you decide to allow gum- chewing in your class despite a school-wide ban)? How can you best show your students you care and help them meet their goals? How can you give them enough slack to be kids and enough structure to actually get things done?
As teachers, we must often navigate the tension between building caring, effective classroom structures that facilitate student learning and falling into ineffective patterns of reward/punish, carrot/stick, etc. For deeper discussion of these issues, I commend reading up on the work of Lee Canter (author of Assertive Discipline) and Life Cohn (author of Punished by Rewards); these authors provide different perspectives on the nature of rewards, punishments, and student behavior. That said, what follows are a few recommendations culled from my class experiences: want your classroom to work: like an organization, a community, a family?
Create a picture in your head of these expectations. Now, write down the behaviors that you see (e. G. Sharing, saying “please” and “thank you”) and those that you don’t (e. G. Arguing, making abrupt noises). List those expectations and plan to share them with your class. If you feel comfortable, invite students to discuss your mental picture and add to it or subtract from it. Use these expectations to draft a set of rules; some teachers prefer to think in terms of class duties, responsibilities, principles, etc. Generally, I try to keep as few class rules/responsibilities as possible.
Longer lists can be effective; Ron Clark, a famed author and educator, helped his students succeed by establishing his Essential 55 rules. Nevertheless, I have found that five general rules work better for my classes than ten, twenty, or thirty specific ones. Often, these draw on our school district’s pledge of ethics. Four good rules that I have seen work well with many age groups are: 1. Respect others. 2. There must be silence when anyone is addressing the class. 3. Keep the classroom neat. 4. Bring everything you need with you to class.
Second, establish incentives, consequences, etc. Write them down. Share them. This is often the aspect of discipline policies that sparks debate. Indeed, striking the balance between incentives and disincentives can be crucial to making your class run smoothly. Dear readers, learn from my mistakes: * Make positive consequences request and varied. While I have always avoided the route of homework passes and “free time,” I have found a lot of success with sending positive notes home, class parties, individual privileges (e. G. Taking care off class pet), etc.
I have also found it helpful to use class-wide rewards for individual behavior; it reinforces that we’re all in this together. * Make negative consequences logical and progressive. This might look like: * 1st Offense – Warning * 2nd Offense – Student-Teacher Conference (after a cooling-off period) * 3rd Offense – Detention (students do a special assignment like an apology letter) 4th Offense – Student-parent-Teacher Conference * 5th Offense – Disciplinary Referral to the Vice Principal * Include some type of system for kids to dig themselves out of a hole.
This may take the form starting with a clean slate (I. E. Removing previous warning or demerits) every day or week. Little good seems to come from drilling students down to the point where they cannot achieve success. * Make clear that certain behaviors (e. G. Violations of school-wide rules like fighting or stealing) will probably require special consequences. * Consider a more formal token economy system.