The performance of many roles in a given organization and ways of handling different situations depends on the style of management. There are essential management skills that assist in building management functions, technical use of tools and practices, human and conceptual. Management is a comprehensive problem solving skill that is accomplished through various management systems. According to Erick (1999), management styles are general techniques used by managers. The managers must manipulate their management skills in regard to the situation that they are presented with.
Management Styles There are four major management techniques deployed by managers in an organization. These include; • Leadership- which is mainly the process of coordination. • Planning- which involves choosing goals • Controlling- working together as a group. • Organizing- monitoring and measuring of the progress of the organization. These styles are deployed alongside each other hence allow the organization to be more amenable and flexible in the dynamic world as well as promote empowerment among employees as compared to the rigidly structured organizations of the past. Organizing
This is a management style, which take into account activities used to collect and configure resources in an effective and professional approach. In addition, it is responsible for establishing the organizational constitution of a company. It focuses on division, coordination, control of duties in addition to the flow of information in the organization. In this management function, managers are responsible for distributing information and responsibility to employees. Organizing entails the appointing of individuals to responsibilities that combine together to develop one purpose which is goal realization.
The goals are reached with regard to the company’s visions and objectives. As a manager, one must know the weakness and strengths of each of their junior staff, as they are the most valuable resources in a company (Bateman, 2007). This is accomplished through the management staffing of the work division, introduction of training for employees, acquisition of resources, and organization of work groups into functional team. Consequently, the manager must go through the plans with the formed team, assign duties, link related jobs together in an understandable well-organized style, and allocate the jobs to individuals.
In a company, there are various activities in organizing management which are required for progress. For example, managers build a working rapport among the employees on how to achieve their objectives and missions. They may group members according to departments, duties performed and guidelines for power and responsibilities for each member which motivates the staff. This type of management ensures that organizational goals are constantly achieved in an effective and efficient way. Planning
This is a management style used to identify the goals of a company and the way to attain them together with the necessary resources available in order to achieve the goals. Planning as noted by James (1994) is concerned with the future outcomes of the current decisions. Planning is important in an organization and it varies by level of management. Planning is an essential function of the other management styles. In a nutshell, planning provides the goals and standards essential in leadership, organizing and controlling types of management.
Therefore, planning is important at all levels of management although its characteristics differ depending on the level of management. An organization’s plan stipulates the basic measures that the organization will follow in conducting its business (James 1994). The plans direct the organization’s resources to proposed actions, meant to achieve its key mission. In planning, the manager has to perform both internal and external environmental analysis, review vision, mission as well as objectives, which determine the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the company.
SWOT analysis needs the managers to be honest and disciplined. Bernard (1992) puts forward that, choosing a plan without a wide-ranging SWOT analysis is unsafe. Strengths and weaknesses arise from the domestic environment of the organization. Strengths exposes past events in production, marketing, financial and human resource management. Weaknesses on the other hand are internal characteristics that are capable of limiting the achievement of organization’s mission and objectives. They are necessary and need to be addressed before planning takes place.
Opportunities and threats are external to the firm and are therefore out of control of the managers. Opportunities provide a company with the possibility of a major development. Threats may thwart the company from achieving its objective and mission (Bernard 1992). Leadership Leadership is a management style which is expressed through various names. Higgins refers to it as leading. While others labels or associates leadership to such terms as influencing, coaching, motivating, interpersonal relations, and human relations.
The function of leadership allows managers set out vision and mission for their employees to follow in attaining the organizations goals. This involves the use of authority, influence and communication skills whereby the results range from employees’ motivation to loyalty. It gives the manager the authority rather than a reactive role in career growth of the employee. The managers can only realize the company mission through the employees’ performance. In addition, leadership influences the performance of people in the organization based on the mission and vision to be achieved.
Lastly, in the leading function, the determination of whether or not goals are being achieved and standards met; depend entirely on the planning function. Controlling In this function, managers assess how organization meets its goals and involves right action to achieve performance. Here, the managers evaluate individuals, departments and the organization as a whole. The resultant factor of control is actual measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness, regardless of the challenges involved.
It helps in introducing performance standards based on the firm’s objectives (Erick, 1999). Performance values come from the planning function. In spite of difficulties, standards should be established for any task. Nevertheless, a manager should not lower standards when they are found to be impossible due to limitation of resource and other external factors in the business. In this style, action is important because when performance goes below the standards, precautionary action can be taken to make sure that the crisis does not reoccur.
However, as noted by John (2000), when performance is greater than or equal to the standards, it is practical to strengthen behaviors which led to the acceptance. Every organization must have a goal in order to be successful. Identification of this goal requires some form strategies, which are agreed upon by decision makers of the business through communication and performance. But they are required to identify and concede that they are not changing their strategies. Some people emphasize that, as the nature of organizations changes so should the nature of management control.
Other people go far claiming that management should not exercise any form of control. They want the management to support employee’s efforts to be efficient members of organizations and the community. Therefore, any form of control is completely counterproductive to employees and the management. Summary Among the management functions, it can be summarized that leadership is the most crucial as it depends on the amount of support and guidance. Leadership style influences people’s behavior through motivation, group dynamics, communication, leadership and discipline.
Organizational success is evaluated by the quality of leadership, which determines the organizational growth. It involves persuading of a person over others to motivate actions aimed at achieving the objectives and mission of the company. Leadership must encourage employees and direct them to their duties or responsibilities assigned during the planning process (Allen 1998). Leadership role involves motivation of staff to fulfill the ultimate goals of the company and do better than their rival companies.
They also have daily contact with workers through communication and are able to give direction individually as well as among teams, departments and divisions. Management is there to inspire subordinates and find new means to solve departmental troubles. Conclusion All these styles depend on the situation and the performance of the individual staff. Even though with all these function in place there are obstacles that managers stumble upon: for instance increasing the number of organizations worldwide, competition through efficient, originality, quality, and awareness.