Information beginnings chooses preferable message among a set of possible messages which can be a combination of any signifier of written or spoken, sound or image. Then, sender manipulates the message into the signal, besides known as encoder. Channel is the tract that message passes through from the sender to the receiving system. Receiver is the contrary sender which changes the signal back into the message, besides known as decipherer. Finish is the mark topographic point of the familial message. Last, noise is any unwanted add-ons to the transmitted signal which cause deformation or mistake in communicating.
Mathematical theoretical account shows the communicating procedure between beginning and finish. The beginning generates the message which can be separate or uninterrupted. Shannon and Weaver one time said a distinct beginning produces “ the message, symbol by symbol. It will take consecutive symbols harmonizing to certain chances depending, in general, on predating picks every bit good as the peculiar symbols in inquiry ” which is quoted by Lossy ( 1999 ) . Written English or figure informations are illustrations of distinct beginnings. Non-discrete beginnings like music or address called uninterrupted, but at times they are encoded into separate sequence of Numberss. The generated message by the beginning is non transmitted but, it is transformed by the sender to the signal and so transferred to the receiving system. It is indispensable that sender encodes message in a signifier that can be transferred through the medium which makes the channel. The receiving system converts the transformed message to its original one and gives it to the finish.
In this mathematical theory, the word information does n’t reflect its normal significance but as Weaver ( 1949 ) specifies “ information is a step of one ‘s freedom of pick when 1 selects a message ” . The state of affairs that there are two ways which individual must take one of them, the information related to this state of affairs is unity. In other words, the construct of information is n’t applied to the single messages, but to the state of affairs as a whole, and the unit information indicates the sum of freedom of pick when 1 must take a message which is considered as unit sum.
To be more certain, the amount of information is measured by the logarithm of the sum of available picks. It is easy to utilize logarithms to the base two alternatively of base 10, so when there are merely two choices to take, the information is related to the logarithm of two to the base two which is integrity. In add-on, the state of affairs of two available options is defined by information of integrity. These two options can be represented by two whole numbers of one and zero which are the lone two figures in binary systems. So, binary figure or its abbreviation “ spot ” is considered as the unit of info. A message can be created freely by taking the one out of legion combinations of spots agreements.
Although different agreements of spots can bring forth messages but in the context of English linguistic communication all of these agreements can non be useable or the chance of being of one agreement is less than the other. The possibility of pick of the different distinct symbols at one degree depends on the earlier picks.
Freedom of pick which is the base of Shannon ‘s theory brings up the information construct which is the step of uncertainness in a system. When the measure of points which beginning can take from to construct the message additions, the uncertainness or information rushs with the same proportion. In contrast, when the status is good organized and there is no much of entropy or pick, information or information is low. In other words when the finish knows about the chance of the messages, information or sum of information is low. The value of a specific spot of information relies on the opportunity of its occurring. By and large, if the opportunity of happening an point in a message additions, the enlightening value of it decreases every bit good.
Structure of English linguistic communication is in a manner that decreases people ‘s free pick in authorship and speech production to about 50 per centum. It means that when we write or speak, half of it is statistical control and half of it is our ain free pick. The 50 % of our free pick really is unneeded because it adds no new information and can be missed without upseting the completeness of the message. For this ground, we call them redundant and are the index of redundancy. Redundancy and increasing of it can be good and reconstruct efficiency when any extra signals interfere with the message. These extra signals which are non related to the message are known as noise.
Every individual theoretical account is utile for certain intents and non so utile for others. The strong point of Shannon and Weaver ‘s Mathematical Model are its simpleness, generalization and measurability. Besides, in communicating theory, this theoretical account is the most used simple communicating theoretical account. Shannon and Weaver divided the communicating procedure into a figure of single parts. These gave inducement to making communicating theoretical accounts supplying a thorough amplification of their procedure. Other than that, this theoretical account provides rational inspiration for communicating theorists taking to farther theories and research. The advantages mentioned above made this theoretical account attractive to legion academic subjects. It besides drew serious academic attending to human communicating and ‘information theory ‘ taking to farther theory and research. ( Chandler, 1995 )
One of the failings of this theoretical account is its non correspondent to much of human communicating. Merely a portion of the information transmitted in interpersonal brushs can be taken as remotely matching to the teletype action of statistically infrequent or excess signals. AlthoughA Shannon ‘s proficient construct of information is attractive in many respects, it ranks among the most non of import methods of conceiving of what we recognize as “ information ” . The 2nd failing of this theoretical account is its does non account for content. Mortensen said: “ Shannon and Weaver were concerned merely with proficient jobs related with the agreement and choice of distinct units of information-in short, with strictly formal affairs but non content. Hence, Shannon and Weaver ‘s theoretical account does non use to matter-of-fact or semantic dimensions of linguistic communication ” . Static and linear is the 3rd failing of Shannon and Weaver ‘s Mathematical Model. Mortensen said: “ Finally, the most concerned insufficiency of the Shannon-Weaver communicating system is that it is relatively inactive and additive. It conceives of a additive and actual transmittal of information from one topographic point to another. The construct of one-dimensionality leads to misdirecting thoughts when transmitted to human behavior ; by analyzing several alternate communicating theoretical accounts, some of the jobs can best be stressed. ” ( Mortensen, 1972 ) Other than that, the mathematical theoretical account is still no proviso for feedback or context. ( Magerstadt, 2012 )
Equally much as Shannon and Weaver ‘s theoretical account is good known and often implied, it happens to non be truly similar to human communicating. It can be improved by carefully looking through possible noises that can happen in between the process in Shannon and Weaver ‘s theoretical account. Noises for case, in the constructs in the theoretical account ; information beginning, sender, channel, message, receiving system and information finish or in other words besides the noise that occur in between the sender and the receiving system. From the sender or known as encoder, noise can happen in ways such as conveying in different linguistic communications or non apprehensible pitch in voice in the event. As for the decipherer, receiver may besides be blind or deaf. Blind receivers are non able to grok messages derived via print or articles on the net. Furthermore in the response, troubles can be found such as deficiency of signal in telephone line or such. These are some of the countries to look into to better the theoretical account. The issue is that Shannon and Weaver has generalized everyone in footings of capableness physically and mentally.
Another failing that is found in Shannon and Weaver ‘s theory is that it ‘s written officially, it does non account for any content. Before declaring their theory they did non set attempt into seting in theoretical trials. To better it, application of semantic and matter-of-fact in other words a greater apprehension or a relation between their forms and pattern by making practical infliction. The mathematician ‘s error is that they focused majorly on proficient troubles without sing other assorted possible complications that occurs of course in human communicating.
Furthermore, another issue for the theoretical account is that the theoretical account has no mechanism for separating of import thoughts from unneeded babble. Furthermore, despite the sufficient acceptable content, in its proficient that information will connote anything that can be coded for transmittal through a channel that connects a beginning with a receiving system. An easy manner to get the better of this job is, similar to application to semantic and matter-of-fact, analyse and filter any unneeded thoughts such as being consecutive frontward in the development in theoretical account without analyzing or making research about affects in more item.
Last, Shannon and Weaver besides left out another luggage in their theory which happens for the theoretical account to be excessively inactive as in intervention and linear. It conceives actual transmittal of information from one to another. Linearity leads misdirecting transmittal to recipient. This can be underscored by merely naming possible thought or ideas about a statement made by the encoder for case significance of a phrase that might be different from other civilization and states. Analyzing other bing theoretical accounts such as Berlo ‘s theoretical account of communicating, Shramm ‘s theoretical account of communicating and a Helical theoretical account of communicating which perchance provides thoughts or a image of get the better ofing failings in Shannon and Weaver ‘s.
A practical illustration how the construct of Shannon and Weaver ‘s communicating theory is presuming a scenario of one concern related individual and one of his client who are involved in a concern understanding. Given that the concern adult male is making gross revenues for a organic structure edifice for work forces company, his client has agreed to buy a two month supply of organic structure constructing addendum such as protein shake. The protein that his client demanded is an imported merchandise which requires transportation and other assorted transit. The concern adult male agrees to the conditions and hired a in-between individual to present the merchandises to the client.
From what can be seen, the transmitter in footings of the Shannon and Weavers theoretical account, is really the provider from the location from where the imported merchandise semen from. Followed by the encoder who in this instance is the concern adult male ‘s in-between adult male who is in charge on transporting the merchandises to the concern adult male himself. At this point, noise takes topographic point in the channel which is where the merchandises are being shipped from the beginning state which might come across holds such as conditions jobs, ship care, possible ship engine failure or such. Furthermore, after the merchandises arrived to destinated state, it requires transit by land which in Shannon and Weaver ‘s theoretical account is the decipherer, to make the purchasers doorstep. Furthermore, similar noises may happen during the process for case transit go through rain that may impact the quality of the merchandise due to the moist environment before the purchaser receives them.
Finally, making the finish the bringing to the receiving system whom in the given scenario the client of the man of affairs. The receiving system so contributes feedback to the company of the merchandise whether or non the merchandise is found fulfilling which leaves the company thoughts in bettering their merchandises in which position determined by the feedback given by their clients. From the full process, it can be seen that the full mathematical theoretical account is implied in a signifier of a rhythm.