Other major factors are personality, if a person feels they have control over a situation and they can effect the changes in their circumstance they will find it easier to deal with. So therefore people with an internal locus of control and high-self efficacy are likely to suffer lower stress levels. In addition to this age of the victim, various studies have found that children respond to disasters in the same way as adults but recover more quickly. But this does depend on nature of the event and how much social support is available.
Crawshaw (1963) reported that children sometimes take their cues on how to react from their parents, along with further studies finding that middle aged groups show more negative effects than the young or old. And gender has shown female’s tend to be more affected than men and young girls, and Seroke et al (1986) found that adolescent girls reported more nightmares and fear of being alone than adolescent boys. First one being social support, this could be lost though if their families are lost as well.
There is considerable evidence that strong social support can help people suffering from stress. Having to deal with a traumatic experience and then having nobody to turn to would increase the despair as nobody to discharge the emotions felt.
In Tyhurts model we see how affiliation in the period of aftermath, as survivors who were all originally strangers now have something in common and can help each other overcome the trauma, as they have both been through the same thing.
Only problem is the other person has also been through the same experience and may not be as effective as a family member who hasn’t. Dealing with the grief, anger and depression is difficult but both individual and group counselling have proved effective and its important to start trying to deal with the problems after a disaster straight away rather than leaving it to linger on your mind. Survivors are taught methods of relaxation and taught to keep their minds off the event, also taught to talk about their problems with ease rather than keeping them stored up inside.