Although conflict in project management is inevitable, in an attempt to resolve these conflicting issues, proper management of time, human resource and capital should be adopted. In ensuring that there is no conflict between an individual and the job, one has to redesign the job so as to increase job satisfaction. This can be done by enlarging the job whereby an individual is levied many tasks to perform at once. This is a solution for individuals complaining of inadequate tasks. Job enrichment is another solution for job satisfaction where the task levied to an individual is quit involving usage brains use.
This is a solution to individuals who are overqualified for a given task. However, one can opt to do job rotation, a criteria used to reduce the boredom nature of performing the task repeatedly. An activity can be scheduled in a logical order that dictates the flow of activities in a manner suggesting success completion of the project and in a manner that will out do resource conflicts. For example, there should be accurate planning of time that will show the start and completion of the project, there should be a proper conduct of feasibility study that will show the viability of the project given organization’s resources and constraints.
Besides, project management should employ a team of technical experts qualified in their respective areas to institute quality completion of the project in time. In response to conflict, management can opt to use the following tactics to solve the issues in resource conflict. They can decide to avoid the conflict by ignoring the problem altogether hoping that it will go away on its own and smooth in which case managers acknowledge the existence of the conflict while developing its importance.
They can also decide to compromise the issue by seeking a middle ground for the parties involved or collaborating by satisfying the desired outcomes of both parties. However, they can opt to confront by directly addressing a conflict and negotiating with the parties involved or accommodating the problem by allowing one party to gain while the other to lose. Project accountability This is the way one should be responsible and liable for the duties or activities they perform in the project. If project accountability is not endorsed in an organization, the best is not achieved in any task undertaken.
Time factor will not be considered while some other individuals will not be effective and efficient in undertaking their tasks for quality performance. For one to institute effective project accountability, the following should be adopted: each individual’s responsibility should be defined on basis of their role’s impact on others, project deadline and results; the tasks should be made visible among the individuals; proper communication and documentation mechanisms should be defined especially when projects are delayed; end users are to be engaged and finally excuses at all cost should be eliminated to minimize “I don’t know” says (Raven)
1. Workload breakdown structure(WBS) This is a result oriented family tree portrayed graphically or in a tabular list that captures all work of a project in an organized way in hierarchical manner (Chapman, 2004). The main reason for all this is to make all the individuals accountable for the tasks they perform. The large, complex projects are organized in a manner to break or aggregate them into progressively manageable and smaller pieces called work packages that includes a number of tasks.
Because by planning a complex project is always confusing, to get beyond this confusion is to break the projects into manageable small tasks, organize them in a logical way using this methodology and get a lend hand from the project team members because it is not always correct that all these tasks can be comprehended by the same individual. Before implementing this rational, one has to think how to organize it, schedule its format, and manage its assignments and the resources available in project planning.
The WBS’s design should consider its end users and should try to achieve its goals as giving visibility to important work efforts and allowing mapping of plans, testing and deliverables. Therefore, the breakdown of a project is a big step towards managing its complexity by enhancing its understanding, assimilation and accountability. 2. Responsibility matrix Responsibility matrix is used incase many people have a hand in creation of a complex project. The matrix helps in setting expectations and ensuring that people knows what is expected of them.
For instance, from responsibility matrix, one can know if the steering committees can approve, review or create status report. The purpose of this matrix is to have a clarification and agreement of every individual’s responsibility in a sensible way. After the creation of a WBS, the only thing remaining is the assigning of responsibilities to individuals. The matrix to be constructed links activities to resources available by making sure that every task is completed by someone.
Besides knowing who is responsible for a given task, the other important virtue of creating this matrix is to enhance quick see through if one has enough resources to complete the project in a stipulated period. (Levine 2009)The matrix is assigned the deliverables as responsible, accountable, consulted, supportive and informed so as to know in what sector of deliverables is an individual liable in a given task. Sample responsibility matrix As stated early, this is an assigning tool used to show who does what in a given activity in the project.
On the matrix, the column side has different roles while at the row side, there are listed deliverables as responsible, accountable, consulted, and supportive thereby making it easy to define the role of an individual in a given task in the project. Its main purpose is to gain clarity and agreement on who does what in a project. After the creation of the matrix, the document is circulated to everyone involved to seek approval before being in operation (Mocchal 2006) Project compression
Managing complex projects that consist of a large number of interrelated activities always has significant problems in planning scheduling and control when activities are to be performed in a sequential way (Alberto 1994). The compression is vital when the duration of some activities needs to be reduced in an attempt of compensating for unexpected delays, or when it is of great importance in completing the project before the stipulated period. 1. Project crushing This is a project compression technique that entails adding of more resources to a project as a dependable way to reduce or shorten the duration.
For every activity done there has to be advantages and disadvantages accruing to it. Much as it shortens the duration, by adding more resource to a project stands at a chance of increasing its duration. Recruiting new human resources in an attempt to increase the resources to reduce the completion period, will result to unfamiliarity of the task compared to the former members their by creating complexities in understanding the project hence reducing the productivity, quality and efficiency in performance.
Even if the new human resources may have best qualifications, they not are in good terms with the older ones due to new ideas formulation that may create conflict. Besides, by crashing the project, more money is spent to deliver it in less time. Although it makes economic sense in the long run, the short run effects are so costly. Also, by crashing the project will prove difficult since some tasks costs more in the event of crushing than others thereby necessitating need for a technical expert to use a more cost-effective crushing technique to crash it.
These are th damages that the crashing activities have to a project. However, the merits are only seen in the long run where long tasks will be completed in the shortest time possible at the minimal costs, the lag times between the tasks are reduced and unnecessary tasks are eliminated. 2. Fast tracking This is another technique used to shorten the project duration by overlapping some project phases in an attempt to meet the target date (Dhanasekaran 2008). For example, projects that were planned to start on the different dates can be fast tracked and started at the same time.
The only merits accruing to this technique is that it shortens the project duration and the clients’ commitment are met while the only demerit is that it increased the risk of reworking again. (Dhana 2008) Resource leveling This is a way of fragmenting the workload into smaller tasks and fulfilling them by using the constraining limited available resources optimally. This is mainly to overcome the problems associated with saddled projects with short deadlines.
It helps in utilizing resources consistently throughout the project and helps project managers to identify and take advantage of unused times by analyzing task dependencies. Some tasks are combined to make optimal use of available resources sequentially. First, the total project work is fragmented into manageable tasks, the task dependency is established to facilitate proper execution of work in a sequential manner and finally the work estimation is done. But before attempting resource leveling, resources are first assigned to tasks to aid timely execution.
The most used software in resource leveling is the Ms Project (MSP) which automatically level resources based on task type, resource calendar, dependencies and constraints. However, the leveling can be done through the resource usage view. The leveling ensures that the resources are not over or under allocated. This can be done through delaying certain tasks, allocating alternative resources, eliminating unnecessary tasks or reworking task dependencies. After the successful leveling of resources, the critical path is determined that helps managers identify tasks that must be carefully monitored.
This is the longest path through the network diagram and the shortest path to complete the project Critical chain project management (CCPM) This is a criterion used in managing the project that leads to lead time reduction, increased output, improved productivity and reduction of investment capital. In other words, it improves quality of work life for project members. The CCPM therefore deals with the root cause of the problem and accelerates the project completion. As stated, the aftermath of this criterion is that the output increases and the profits also increase. Conclusion
In conclusion, project management involves quite strenuous and complicated events that need technical analysis and in-depth understanding of the activities in a sequential order so as to be in a position to radically redesign and implement the project to improve in measures of performance. CASE STUDY Project management in business process improvement or re-engineering Regardless of the size of the an organization, its business processes should be designed to achieve the desired outcome rather than focusing on the existing tasks. In resent years, more emphasis has been laid on the use of information technology for competitive advantage.
This has resulted redesigning of systems in a manner to improve the measures of performance as increased productivity, profits and reduction of costs. Therefore, managers have focused there attention on how old fashioned and inefficient business processes can be redesigned. Thus, the process involves the radical rethinking and redesigning of business processes (for example the development of a new programmer or system) to achieve dramatic improvements in the measures of performances as cost, quality, speed and services. Reference list Chatfield C. , Thimothy J. , “A short course in project management”. Microsoft 2007 http://office. microsoft.
com/en-us/project/HA102354821033. aspx Dana D. “what is a conflict? ” http://www. mediate. com/articles/dana1. cfm Mike G. , “Multiple Resource Assignments” Ms Project 10 http://webcache. googleusercontent. com Manjeet S. , “Project Mind’s quick guide to project management” http://www. projectminds. com /Raven’s Brain Project Management http://www. grandview2000. com/Newsletter/drive-project-accountability. html Tom M. ,(2006). Use a responsibility matrix to show who does what in your projects