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Post modernism was devised from its old motion, modernism and first began to emerge around the provinces of America in the sixtiess but truly took off around the early 1970s when it came to England and Europe and became a motion. It still continues to act upon modern architecture today. The most obvious design traits can be seen in architecture ; features that best represent this manner include bold, ocular outsides, designs that are functional yet contain architectural features that have been seen before but uniting these with exciting, colorful, fresh designs. An illustration of this is the Portland edifice ; Oregon designed by Michael Graves. ( See Fig.1 ) This block of authorities offices built in 1980 has a really cosmetic outside and has become an icon of Post modernism. Post modernism came about when modernist positions were being rejected by many people and designers although there where still some whom where in favor of the current modernist thoughts, yet still recognized the demand for farther development within this manner to take topographic point as the universe fast continued to modernize around them, this saw the beginnings of Postmodernism.

This quotation mark from Michael Graves gives his position on how modernism designed everything to be machine like, which worked, although edifices should be made cosmetic and non so set in the modernist ways:

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“ While any architectural linguistic communication, to be built, will ever be within the proficient kingdom, it is of import to maintain the proficient look analogue to an equal and complementary look of ritual and symbol. It could be argued that the Modern Movement did this, that every bit good as its internal linguistic communication ; it expressed the symbol of the machine, and hence adept cultural symbolism. But in this instance, the machine is retroactive, for the machine itself is a public-service corporation. So this symbol is non an external allusion, but instead a 2nd, internalized reading. A important architecture must integrate both internal and external looks. The external linguistic communication, which engages innovations of civilization at big, is rooted in a nonliteral, associational and anthropomorphous attitude. “ iˆ±

In this quotation mark Graves refers to the modernist motion and how they designed their edifices to be like machines, highly clean, sleek and purely functional with no gratuitous design characteristics. His position is non to believe that the interior of a edifice should be run as a machine but to believe of the edifice as a whole and to believe outside the modernists clean cut lines and un cosmetic architecture.

Unlike the modernist architecture old to this motion the station modernism architecture is normally rather cosmetic, new but besides borrowing some characteristics from the past, such as conveying coloring material back into architecture which taken away for modernist epoch.

There is rather a batch of competition between the two motions, modernists strongly believe in ‘form follows map ‘ , their architecture demoing functional, formalistic forms and infinites, where station modernists believe in non needfully organize over map but doing their functional edifices a batch more visually dynamic and I suppose more of an experience.

“ There is no true world non even your ain ” 2

This is a stating from the late 90 ‘s which reflects station modernists positions. They felt you need to oppugn world and believe outside the box where as the modernists believed in oppugning authorization, their thought that if people looked into why things are designed the manner they are and the ‘truth ‘ is to be ‘discovered ‘ so tradition would be questioned.

The postmodern architecture features unblushing aesthetics different from anything before, they have a more organic feel and stand out. The station modern epoch besides found the usage of different stuffs being used with in architecture than earlier, whether it be the coloring material or the specification of the stuff that was to be desired. The two chief stuffs used in postmodern architecture are rock and glass. The rock is bold and comes in a really broad scope of colorss, which stuck to the postmodernist thoughts. The glass was used a batch particularly in America and big metropolis edifices, office blocks and skyscrapers such as Le 1000 de la Gauchetiere in Canada, it ‘s the tallest skyscraper in Montreal. ( See fig.2 ) This was built a spot subsequently on, in 1992 but still shows strong postmodern values. For illustration the typical triangular Cu roof and four Cu capped entrywaies at each of the tower base corners. The structural nucleus is constructed from concrete and steel and the exterior consists of glass in a metal frame.

The signifier used in postmodern edifices is besides really modern-day, the edifice map is still of import for the interior decorators but compared to the modernist buildings the signifiers, forms and expression of the edifices are about at that place for the interior decorators sake, non for any specific ground other than good aesthetics. As I said before there is about a hit of beliefs between the two motions, though most of the disfavor at the clip was focused towards the station modern architecture as the modernist architectures such as Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius had put the belief into the people that a edifice that was about entirely based on map was the best manner. So when station modern designers such as Frank Gehry, Robert Venturi and Eero Saarinen started planing edifices that where believing outside the slipperiness, functional, simple design box of modernism and wholly aesthetical and about rather cockamamie there was rather an tumult and perchance a confusion as people started to oppugn what was right for the hereafter of architecture? Were the new edifices functional adequate and would the new edifices stand the trial of clip?

As the people began to accept the more complex designs of the post-modern universe the edifices began to go popular and more and more architectures began to come unit of ammunition to the thought. In today ‘s architecture you can clearly see the inspiration from these initial designs and that designers and interior decorators have turned modernist thoughts on their caput, by transporting on the thought of aesthetically delighting designs and about holding more fun with their design instead than merely concentrating on the map.

So how precisely did Postmodernism come about? Well as I have merely confirmed the strongest link/lead to postmodernism was evidently the modernist designs deficiency of ornament, but I besides looked at some other factors that could hold lead to the development of postmodern architecture.

As is good known, the lead to postmodernism was when people started to reject the positions of the modernist motion, though how did this semen about? And why did people get down to reject the modernist ways? The rejection of modernism foremost came from designers In their plants. In Europe Aldo Rossi documented his positions of the current art motion, while in America Raunch and Scott Brown expressed similar positions on the demand for development of the modernist architecture. Though the most influential alteration came from the work of Robert Venturi. He famously wrote the book ‘Complexity and Contradiction in architecture ‘ in 1966 which attacked the modernism of international manner, with his strong positions on his disfavor for modernism. In the authorship he replaces Miles van der Rohe ‘s ( a modernist designer ) modernist phrase “ less is more ” with:

“ lupus erythematosus is a dullard. Blatant simplification means bland architecture ” 3

This quotation mark is merely a brief expression to his positions in the piece, he continues throughout rejecting the ‘moral ‘ , clean cut ways of modern architecture for elements that are more a blend of characteristics than “ pure ” .

Frank Gehry seems to be a name that often appears when look intoing station modernism architecture. His Designs were really modern-day, bold and different to what had been seen earlier. He denied that his work was post modernist or that it even fit into any class other than something wholly new. This would non go on with a modernist designer as ; although the designs are different all modernist ‘s edifices tend to hold the same characteristics, sleek and following map so much that there is non a batch of individualism between the designs. Where as station modernist architecture is all so cosmetic and cosmetic that each design is alone. Just by looking at a few of Frank Gehry ‘s designs you can decidedly state that they are single although they do suit in with the station modern “ class ” his architecture has moved beyond the modernist epoch being based on geometric and organic signifiers. As Gehry says himself:

“ Not every individual has the same sorts of endowments, so you discover what yours are and work with them. Do n’t seek to be me, or seek to be Frank Lloyd Wright, or seek to be I M Pei. Try to be yourself. You have to understand what drives people to construct edifices. ” 4

One of Gehry ‘s most originative pieces that represent this is The Frederick R Weisman Art Museum at the university of Minnesota, 1993 ( See Fig 3 ) . The University functionaries chose Frank Gehry to plan the instruction museum for the campus because of his attending to demands of people that use his edifices and his alone arresting designs. The museums exterior is constructed of amazing, lodging forms made from brushed chromium steel steel on one side over looking the Mississippi river making an abstract image of a waterfall and a fish. The other side of the edifice is on the side of the campus and blends in with the bing sandstone and brick edifices by utilizing terra cotta coloured bricks. Frank Gehry was besides commissioned to plan an enlargement to the edifice that was meant to hold been completed in 2009 though due to fiscal grounds it will be built by following twelvemonth.

This shows that station modernism continues to animate interior decorators today and is still popular. An illustration of an designer that is go oning post modernism design to today ‘s architecture is Santiago Calatrava. Born in 1951 when the postmodern motion was merely get downing to come approximately, Calatrava grew up with the organic architecture from the epoch. Obviously to a great extent inspired by it he has continued post modernism on in his ain plants. He has designed many edifices, which are really good known such as the Museum of tomorrow in Rio de Janerio in Brazil and Liege Guillemins TGV station in Belgium. La Rioja, Bodegas Ysios in Spain is one of his designs, which is non so celebrated though still alone, and peculiarly demo his postmodernism inspiration ( See Fig 4 ) . This edifice is situated amongst vineries in Spain where La Rioja Alavesa vino is produced, the company wanted a edifice that would hive away the made vino and be a topographic point where invitees can prove the vino. The design decidedly meets the standards and is really functional ; there is separate portion for the storing of the vino, doing it and a tasting country. Although this could hold been adequate merely in a field rectangular edifice but in true station modernist manner he has besides added some astonishing design characteristics, the chief characteristic is that the roof, it continues the forms of the environing hills, making a wavy organic form. The stuff he has used for the roof design is aluminium paneling, which reflects the sunshine doing it look even more particular contrasting with the unagitated vinery surrounding.

I have researched the lead to post modern architecture and touched on how it has affected modern design today. Now to reason this essay I will some up my findings of what led to post modernism in architecture.

Post modernism foremost emerged in the sixtiess and became a motion in the early 1970s, its paths stemmed from its old motion, modernism. Modernists had a really strong belief in signifier follows map, their positions where that a edifice should be strictly functional and machine like which worked good but did n’t go forth a batch of an imaginativeness for design characteristics and all the edifices began to hold a batch of the same characteristics.

In the 1960s some designers began to recognize this and voiced their sentiments in their written plants, which made people recognize that designs could be a spot more exciting. The most influential designer in this realization was Robert Venturi, in his well known composing ‘complexity and contradiction in architecture ‘ he strongly expressed his disfavor for modernist architecture, saying that “ less is a dullard ” and that edifices do non hold to be all about map, they can still be functional and have design characteristics. This contributed to the lead to post modernism. One of the designers I found who ‘s name kept looking when looking at station modern architecture is Frank Gehry. His designs are functional but with astonishing design characteristics utilizing organic signifiers and forms to determine the edifices. As is with most post modernist architecture different organic and bold forms are a large characteristic of the edifice devising every design unique unlike the similar designs of the modernist epoch. Although Gehry does non category his edifices to be post modernist or in fact fit into any class, his designs are decidedly suiting with the epoch and he seems to portion the same positions as the station modernists. Buildings like Frank Gehry ‘s continue to influence interior decorators today such as Santiago Calatrava who ‘s modern twenty-four hours plan really much resembles that of station modernist architecture.

Part II

Book reappraisal on: twentieth Century Architecture by Jonathan Glancey

The twentieth Century Architecture explores the roots of modern architecture and explains how the history and the ever-changing societal and political conditions helped form and construct the universe we live in today.

In this book, as the preface provinces, by composing the book Jonathan Glancey efforts to accomplish informing the reader of an debut to architecture of the twentieth Century, non to cover every facet of the topic, as he says himself,

“ The topic is really huge and no book can realistically cover the full history of the 20th century architecture. If I could it would either be excessively heavy to transport or else set in such a bantam type that it would be indecipherable. ”

This quotation mark besides I think captures the manner the book is written, really enlightening yet rather light hearted.

The book covers 8 of motions of twentieth century architecture: Humanistic disciplines and Crafts, Classicism, organic, Modernism, Post-Modernism, Robotic, Cities and Futures. Each motion has a its ain subdivision which is started by a page for a brief account of the motion so examples of architecture important to that clip. Each piece of architecture has its ain page with a full coloring material exposure to demo what it looks like and a subdivision about the interior decorator and the edifice, why it was built and how it relates to the motion and others in that clip. I found the book easy to read, and was able put down at any clip and choice back up from where I left off. I peculiarly like the no slang take and the fact that you do n’t hold to cognize an atrocious batch if anything on architecture or the history of the twentieth century. The book is really enlightening if you read the whole thing or if you merely flick to a specific subdivision you are interested in. I originally did this but found that I wanted to read on farther. This is as Jonathan Glancey intended every bit would most writers, desiring to acquire the attending of the reader and want to read on from their ain will, as he says in the book: “ If this makes you want to happen out more so it has done its occupation. If it encourages you to desire to be an designer so good fortune. ” I think he has decidedly achieved his original purposes for the book. I borrowed this book from the local library but I would decidedly see purchasing a transcript to maintain as a mention book.

From reading and sourcing from other architectural books, I think this fits in to the capable really good. Id says it is more aimed at pupils, people who are interested in architecture and get downing architectures. I do n’t believe the book would be so suited for experient designers and architect fiends as it informs you of edifices and designers that this group would likely already cognize of, thought the may still happen it enlightening about the motions and to happen out when the motions happened and why.

Over all I think this is a good book and deserves the positive remarks it has picked up from imperativeness and other readers.

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