Overview of the Theory:
The theory fundamentally points out the defects that are present in the bing theories of media and communications, they being preponderantly western and secular in their attack have certain incompatibilities when applied in the Islamic universe. It talks about the constitution of a professional association of Muslim journalists to give the Islamic universe a voice that they consider to be appropriate in the media. Basically the Islamic position of the universe is based on five rules of ( 1 ) tawhid, ( 2 ) amrbi al-ma’ruf Washington nahy’an Al munkar, ( 3 ) Ummah, ( 4 ) taqwa, and ( 5 ) amanat which are besides explained in the theory. These five rules are non merely the basic government and steering factor based on religion for the common Muslims but besides for an Islamic province and hence will besides be the elements that if an constitution of Muslims journalists is formed will utilize. The theory besides so explains how the Muslim province or the Ummah is different from the present apprehension of a state province or political entity in the western universe. From an Islamic position, hence, this theory concludes that lingual and political vocabularies and constructs, now at the Centre of planetary political relations, both celebrate the reaching of a new communicating age and keep the key to ultimate information control ( Mowlana, 2007 ) .
The Principles of an Islamic State and Media Theory
Tawhid ( Faith )
Tawhid or faith as understood in the actual sense of the word implies the same thing in Islam. Even though the term has a deeper significance than the regular reading. Tawhid in Islam means the credence of the Oneness of God. This implies in the spiritual context that there is no other power capable of making anything without the will of God and hence it mandates the entire entry of will to God. Since Islam is non merely a faith, but an full manner of life. What this fundamentally means is that, the religious facets of the faith are non separate from the societal, political, economic every bit good as personal facets of a individual ‘s life. Hence, while in some other faiths, which are classified as religious and a separation between the spiritual facet of life and all the others can be established, in Islam it can non be so. A Muslim is non considered a Muslim if he merely following the religious facet and non the societal, economic and political facets of the faith.
It stands for the necessity of sole servitude to God, and it negates any communicating and messages, rational, cultural, economic, or political, that subjugates humankind to animals. The rule of Tawhid besides negates any right of sovereignty and care of anyone over human society except God. Society can be expected to be free from all divergences and excesses merely when the personal businesss of society are delegated by a Power Transcendental to an person or a council of swayers, with a power commensurate with duties within the Islamic legal model.
Therefore, all semisynthetic Torahs and ethical codifications that arrogate judgement to them, or to any authorization or establishment other than in obeisance or enforcement of “ Allah ‘s Own Judgment, ” are null. Therefore, all semisynthetic Torahs, communicating contents, mass media, and public forums that attempt to set restraints upon Allah ‘s sovereignty must be null.
Under the rule of Tawhid, another cardinal ethical consideration in tabligh becomes clear: the devastation of idea constructions based on dualism, racism, tribalism, and familial high quality. The map of communicating order in Islamic society, harmonizing to the rule, is to interrupt graven images, to interrupt the dependance on the foreigners, and to put the ummah or community in gesture toward the hereafter. Therefore, one of the of import maps of tabligh is to destruct myths. In our modern-day universe, these myths may include “ power, ” “ advancement, ” and “ modernisation. ” Personalities as they represent these must non be super-humanized and super-defined. One of this dualism, harmonizing to this rule, is the secular impression of the separation of faith and political relations. ( Mowlana, 2007 ) .
Amr bi al-ma’ruf Washington nahy’an Al munkar
A 2nd rule steering the ethical boundaries of tabligh in Islam is the philosophy of amr bi al-ma’ruf Washington nahy’an Al munkar or “ commanding to the right and forbiding from the incorrect. ” Implicit and explicit in this rule is the impression of single and group duty for fixing the wining coevals to accept the Islamic principles and do usage of them. Moslems have the duty of steering one another, and each coevals has the duty of steering the following. The Quranic poetry explains this: “ Name people to the way of your Lord with wisdom and mild exhortation. Reason with them in the most gracious mode. Your Lord best knows those who stray from His way and best knows those who are justly guided ” ( 16:125 ) . These points out the duties of Muslims in steering each other, particularly those persons and establishments that are charged with the duties of leading and extension of Islamic ideals. This includes all the establishments of societal communicating such as the imperativeness, wireless, telecasting, and film, every bit good as the single citizens of each community.
Therefore, a particular construct of societal duty theory is designed around the ethical philosophy of “ commanding to the right and forbiding from the incorrect. ” This construct has taken on an excess dimension of its ain in the Islamic communities and societies through history since Islam as an across-the-board systematic faith is an interconnected set of thoughts and worlds covering the full country of human impression and action, beliefs and patterns, thought, word, and title. This is peculiarly of import in visible radiation of the fact that Islam is non merely a set of theological propositions, as are many other faiths, but is besides a set of comprehensive legal models that govern every action of the person in society and in the universe at big ( Mowlana, 2007 ) .
Ummah ( Community )
A 3rd cardinal construct in finding the nature and boundaries of tabligh and that of societal moralss, peculiarly as it might associate to the political life of the person and Islamic society, is ummah or community. The construct of ummah transcends national boundary lines and political boundaries. Islamic community transcends the impression of the modern nation-state system: an Islamic community is a religio-economic construct and is merely present when it is nourished and governed by Islam. The impression of community in Islam makes no crisp differentiation between public and private ; hence, what is required of the community at big is similarly required of every single member. Consequently, the ummah must be model, puting the highest criterions of public presentation and the mention point for others.
In the Islamic Ummah, the sovereignty of the “ province ” belongs to God, and non to the swayer nor even to the people themselves. The swayer or leaders are merely moving executives chosen by the people to function them harmonizing to the Law of Islam and the construct of Tawhid.
Under the Ummah, Islam has a new construct of community. One of the most of import facets of Ummah is that Islam does non distinguish between the persons as members of its community. Race, ethnicity, tribalism, patriotism, have no topographic point to separate one member of the community from the remainder. Nationalities, cultural differences, and geographical factors are recognized, but domination based on nationality is rejected. It is the single and its dealingss to the community that is valued ; nevertheless, this relationship entirely is non the exclusive intent in itself, both the person and society must do their relationship clear to God: Are the persons in society against God or under God?
Taqwa ( piousness )
A 4th rule outlined here to explicate the ethical model of news media in Islamic societies is the construct of Taqwa or, approximately translated, piousness. In Islamic societies, Taqwa is normally used in mention to single “ fright of God ” and the ability to guard oneself against the unethical forces which might give up the environment ; nevertheless, the construct of Taqwa goes beyond this common impression of piousness. It is the person, religious, moral, ethical, and psychological capacity to raise oneself to that higher degree, which makes a individual about immune from the inordinate stuff desires of the universe, promoting the person to a higher degree of prophetic uneasiness.
The premise is that human existences possess in their nature a set of Godhead elements which are other than the material components that exist in animate beings, workss, and inanimate objects. Human existences are endowed with unconditioned illustriousness and self-respect. Acknowledging that freedom of pick is a status for the fulfillment of duty, the individual is held responsible to execute his or her duties within the Islamic model of moralss. In short, it is recognized that human existences perform some of their actions merely under the influence of a series of ethical emotions instead than with an purpose of deriving a benefit or of driving injury. Therefore, as a virtuousness and as an of import component in the ethical model of Islamic communicating both on the person and community degrees, Taqwa should be the underpinning ingredient in about every action of a Muslim.
Amanat ( Responsibility )
The fifth and concluding rule outlined in this article is the construct of Amanat. The term Amanat signifies great duty which the Almighty God has imposed on the human being for his or her workss in this universe. The most relevant position of this construct as it may use to the behavior of the imperativeness and the media is that Amanat refers to Divine Vicegerency for which human existences entirely are fit and none else can portion this honor with him. The Holy Quran says: “ Surely, we offered the Amanat into the celestial spheres and the Earth and the hills, but they refused to hear it and were afraid of it, and adult male took it up. Verily, he ( human existences ) as unfair and nescient ” ( xxxiii: 72 ) .
Therefore, human existences fittingness for Divine Vicegerange is lower, conditioned by the fact that he or she must pattern the exalted codification morality which brings him or her to the Supreme Being. Off all the created existences, human existences are surely the best and noblest ( Ashraf-ul-makhlughat ) . Here, it may be noted that rights and duties are mutualist. Serving the public involvement, hence, becomes one of the chief ethical responsibilities of the media.
Amanat means obligatory responsibilities ( faraiz ) . One facet of Amanat is that is can merely be given to one who has the capableness and power to shoulder the load of its duties and carry through the commandments of Allah. Thus, in Islam, existent advancement of moral and non merely stuff, for the latter refers to the ephemeral things of life. The autonomy in Islam has rather a different significance from that understood in the West. It is neither a prerogative nor an absolute right of the person.
Hamid Mowlana ‘s Take on Communication
A figure of surveies on international communicating over the last several decennaries reveal two indispensable features. One is the ethnocentric orientation of mass communicating systems of the extremely developed and industrialised states, and the 2nd is the “ asymmetric ” circulation of information in the universe. These two features dominate the universe mass media system and so are responsible for uneven intervention of events, instabilities in intelligence and information, and besides the unequal distribution of power in the universe system. It is exactly here that a demand for professional codification of moralss among Moslem journalists around the universe seems imperative, and their creative activity of a web of professional universe associations both seasonably and inevitable.
From the Islamic Revolution in Iran to the business of Afghanistan by the former Soviet Union, from the Persian Gulf War to the American invasion of Iraq, the last two decennaries have witnessed profound and worldwide radical motions of an Muslim nature every bit good as systematic and uninterrupted struggles which have embraced Muslim lands. The developments in the Islamic universe non merely have been reported during this period with a good trade of prejudice, deformation, and ethnocentrism by non-Muslim media but besides the great part of what has been reported has been provided chiefly by the Western media and journalists.
Research shows that 99 per cent of universe events do non come to the attending of readers merely because they are eliminated and considered as unimportant or irrelevant by the media. The Islamic universe, in peculiar, has been on the having terminal of a good portion of this modus operandi.
A casual expression at the list of bing media and journalist associations around the universe rapidly shows how the media are organized and mobilized on the footing of nationality, regionalism, ethnicity, and even spiritual premises and are among the most active nongovernmental organisations around the universe. Yet, unusually, today, there are no professional associations of Islamic journalists which can put professional and ethical standards for intelligence coverage, protect the rights of single Muslim journalists, and advance instruction and preparation of immature work forces and adult females who represent a major beginning of human resources for Muslim civilization and civilisation.
Why should at that place be an organisation of Muslim journalists?
Islam is non merely a faith but besides a entire manner of life for 1000000s of people around the universe. Unlike other major cultural systems, Islam transcends geographical every bit good as racial and cultural boundaries and strives for catholicity of human sort. In short, the socio-cultural elements built-in in and among the Islamic community, ummah, supply a common land and sketch a necessity for the type of intelligence coverage that is critical to understanding events in the universe community. Such a web of Muslim journalist and media associations and professional organisations besides can play an of import function as vanguards and boosters of professional purposes within the bing systems of international organisations. A web of professional associations, therefore, non merely can heighten the exchange of information among and between assorted geographical countries known as the Islamic universe but besides can excite the on-going mobilisation of journalists and their common involvements.
Principles of the Association
It must be recalled that intelligence values in the Islamic universe differ well from the general intelligence values in the non-Islamic universe and, more specifically, the West. For illustration, take the construct of alleged “ difficult intelligence ” common in the Western media with its “ five Ws ” syndrome of “ what, when, where, why, and who ” which is promoted as universal. The existent job is that the receiver of such five Ws intelligence ne’er is allowed to gestate of intelligence as a whole but merely in fragments because the construction of the whole is at odds with what is considered “ difficult facts. ” The precedences given to intelligence values in the West, such as human involvements, propinquity, freshness, effect, and prominence, are wholly different from those valued in Islamic contexts.
For illustration, the impression of propinquity in the Western media chiefly is a geographical every bit good as spacial construct. To use this construct, in its Orthodox sense, to the Islamic universe would extinguish intelligence coming from distant topographic points such as Indonesia, China, Africa, or Latin America when the media and its audiences are located someplace in the United States or the Middle East. Proximity in an Islamic context is neither geographical nor spacial but instead cultural-that is to state, events of the Islamic community of Ummah are and must be relevant to the full Muslim universe regardless of nationalities and states. The factors of human involvement or prominence are by themselves non equal justification for coverage of intelligence in the Islamic context. News and information for the Ummah are societal trade goods and non cultural industries.
Analysis of the Propositions
Even though the thought of holding a incorporate remarkable association of Muslim journalists as proposed by Hamid Mowlana does look appealing, there are certain points which if non taken into context can ensue in more pandemonium and instability than the preexistent conditions.
Mowlana accent the constitution of the association on the footing of Islam nevertheless, he fails to advert which signifier of Islam that is being followed presently will be the guiding factor for this association. Since it is pretty clear that there are more than 70 different religious orders of Islam presently being followed in the universe and largely the political scenarios are shaped by them, it will be hard to come to a consensus. Since this is a affair of faith, it will be traveling against One ‘s religion if any of the rules are compromised upon. The prevailing clang can be seen between the Shia and the Sunni. And we can see the jobs that are go oning on the political scenario in Iraq due to this really difference. Besides, so there are fluctuation of within the Sunnis and the Shias. This job as he proposes can be taken attention of by set uping it on the footing of the Quran and the Sunnah. That nevertheless, will besides go forth us with at least five different readings of Islam. Which can be seen in his ain plants
Although the official faith of Iran is Islam and the Twelver J’fari school of Shi’a idea, other Islamic schools of idea, including the Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki, and Yazdi schools, are to be accorded full regard, and their followings are free to move in conformity with their ain law in executing their spiritual devotednesss. ( Mowlana, 1996: 175 )
Another of import issue that Mowlana has non tackled decently in his theory is the assorted cultural differences that are at that place due to the geo-political sprinkling of the Muslims. Since by its really nature the association will be established to provide the demand of the Muslim population throughout the Earth, it is necessary to take into history the differences that are at that place in the Muslim universe. Possibly the closest we have to anything called a Muslim intelligence web is Al Jazira, and I say near as it is besides chiefly non a Muslim intelligence organisation, we can see that it besides once more focuses on the issues that are at that place at the nucleus of the Arab population and hence is non straight providing to the demands of the Muslims in the universe. How he proposes to work out such a job is non clear in any of his plants.
With the other parts of the theory of Mowlana that there should be an Islamic position of communicating is what I agree with. Since, as explained above the Islamic community is an Ummah and unlike other faiths Islam is a complete manner of life.
With a few reserves that I have to the theory of Mowlana and those are besides with the establishement of the association of the journalists that he proposes. I besides feel that possibly taking the Islamic point of position on communicating and particularly the distinction between Tabligh and Propoganda is necessary for the universe that we are populating in. We are presently confronting a crisis as to where Islam is being targeted as a faith that is one of the primary grounds for the absence of peace in the universe and hence it is necessary that we show the Muslim position on the assorted events happening in the universe.
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- Mowlana, Hamid ( 1989 ) ‘The Islamization of Persian Television ‘ , Intermedia 7 ( 5 ) : 35-9.
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- Mowlana, Hamid ( 2007 ) ‘Theoretical Positions on Islam and Communication ‘ , China Media Research, 3 ( 4 ) , 2007
- Mowlana, Hamid ( 1997 ) ‘Islamicising the Media in a Global Era: The State- Community Perspective in Iranian Broadcasting ‘ , in Kevin Robins ( ed. ) Programing for Peoples: From Cultural Rights to Cultural Responsibilities. United Nations Television Forum, New York, 19-21 November. Report presented by RAI-Radiotelevisione Italiana.
- Mowlana, Hamid and Laurie Wilson ( 1990 ) The Passing of Modernity. London: Longman.