A diamond is a crystalline treasure made one of the Earths most common elements ; C and it is one of the best known allotropes of C. The formation of diamonds began really early in the Earth ‘s history, when the condensation of solid affair into a domain caused the Centre of the planet to go subjected to unbelievable extremes of temperatures and force per unit area. It was these conditions that caused sedimentations of C to get down to crystallise deep in the Earth. As the Earth ‘s surface cooled, volcanic activity forced watercourses of magma to the surface, transporting with it the diamond crystals. Afterward the diamond-bearing stone hardened, incasing the diamonds in perpendicular volcanic “ pipes ” . However non all diamonds are found where they foremost came to the surface, because eventful eroding of the top dirts over 1000000s of old ages transported and deposited diamonds along the river Bankss, the shorelines or on the bed of the oceans.[ 1 ]
The most of import diamond value looked upon by adult male is its highest hardness and thermic conduction of any bulk stuff, doing it perfect for industrial applications in cutting and smoothing.
“ Above all other of its qualities, which at present determine its value, the superior hardness to all substances so known, seems to hold impressed the Ancients. ” ( Endlich, 1878, p. 30 )
There are two ways of mining diamonds and they are Pipe Mining and Alluvial Mining. The Pipe excavation refers to the extraction of diamonds from the volcanic pipes, as for the Alluvial excavation it is a procedure where diamonds are extracted from the alluvial sedimentations which are sand, crushed rock and clay that have been of course enriched with diamonds by dirt and H2O eroding as mentioned above.
Until the late 1800 ‘s diamonds were a truly rare rock found merely in a little figure of river bottoms in India and in the jungles of Brazil. The full universe production of treasure diamonds amounted to merely several lbs a twelvemonth. In 1870, nevertheless huge diamond sedimentations were discovered in South Africa. Almost instantly diamonds were being mined by the “ dozenss ” , this necessarily caused diamonds to deluge the market.
To the moneymans who developed the South African mines this fact spelled at hand danger for their investings, because at the clip diamonds had small intrinsic value and their monetary value depended to a great extent on their scarceness. They feared that overdevelopment of diamond mines in South Africa and beyond, will do diamonds to lose value and go merely semiprecious treasures. Quickly, the major investors realized that they need to command the diamond trade in order to perpetuate the semblance that the diamonds are rare/scarce. Hence in 1888 they created DeBeers Consolidated Mines Ltd. , which was incorporated in the South Africa.
Shortly after its incorporation, DeBeers took control over all facets of the universe diamond trade. DeBeers a diamond trust took many signifiers and it used many different names for its operational units all over the Earth. In Europe, it was called the “ C.S.O. ” or the Central Selling Organization, in London it operated under the name of “ The Diamond Trading Company ” , in Israel it was known as “ The Syndicate ” , and in Africa it disguised its South African beginnings under subordinates with names like Diamond Development Corporation and Mining Services, Inc. For most of the clip since its origin DeBeers Consolidated Mines Ltd. , non merely straight owned or controlled all the diamond mines in southern Africa but besides owned diamond trading companies in England, Portugal, Israel, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland.
DeBeers Consolidated Mines Ltd. , became the most successful trust treaty in the history of the modern trade. While all other trade goods, such as the “ other ” cherished treasures, gold, Ag, Cu etc. , oscillated wildly with the economic conditions ; diamonds have continued to travel upward in monetary value every twelvemonth since the great depression or better to state since the beginning of the aggressive selling run employed by DeBeers in order to advance diamonds.
It is easy to reason that the Diamond trust had conceived their concern program with two parts ; foremost to command the supply of diamonds, than to act upon the demand. What De Beers did and are making even today is a authoritative text edition illustration of a monopoly, for this ground they are out to run on the United States dirt, stemming from the commissariats in the Sherman Act, which states that “ any confederacy in restraint of trade is improper ” . Nonetheless, they were and still are selling 50 % of the universes one-year diamond gross revenues in the USA ; through their assorted subordinates or American traders who can buy diamonds merely from the trust, what we have to recognize is that this is traveling on since the late 1800 ‘s until modern clip.
“ Thought the South African beginning of the universe ‘s diamonds supply is still traveling strong, we, as a state, sport more than half of the scintillating C crystals worn anyplace. ” ( MacDill, 1929, p. 125 )
Even thought their concern patterns are really of import for the analysis of their ethical concern operation, I will concentrate more on their selling program and the attempts done over a period of the last century, where they strived to command and act upon the multitudes, public sentiment and finally shape cultural beliefs all over the Earth.
B. Ingenious and changeless advertisement attempts of the De Beers diamond excavation trust since 1930 ‘s has deeply affected and shaped our popular civilization within the United States and beyond. During the great depression, diamond industry experienced its first and last so far ; diamond crisis, during which the monetary value of diamonds was worsening worldwide. This bend of the events has motivated DeBeers a “ diamond trust ” to get down their aggressive advertisement run, which influenced public sentiment and changed cultural beliefs worldwide. They needed to alter public attitudes towards diamonds and act upon them to believe that diamonds have value beyond the economic worth. In September of 1938, after Harry Oppenheimer so CEO of De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd, has traveled to New York City and run into with Gerald M. Lauck, the president of N. W. Ayer advertisement company, the advertisement program was devised. Two ends of this run are ; first to carry work forces to purchase bigger diamonds, 2nd to carry adult females that diamonds are necessity to romantic love and wooing.
II. Diamonds as symbols of everlasting love.
A. First and the most effectual selling scheme employed by DeBeers has been the selling of diamonds as a symbol of love and committedness. DeBeers realized that in order for diamonds to go a symbol of love and wooing they had to alter their significance wholly. They set out to make this trough three chief ways ; a. trough films and royalty, b. intelligence narratives associating diamonds and love, c. advertisement run.
“ What was necessary was the creative activity of a mass outlook in which adult females would comprehend diamonds, non as cherished rocks that could be bought and sold harmonizing to economic conditions or manner, but as an inseparable portion of wooing and married life. ” ( Epstein, 1982, p. 6 )
Overall impact of this run on the popular civilization has been that diamonds are cardinal when believing about the rites of romantic wooing. Today, diamond battle rings are platitude and are seen as the indispensable portion of our wooing.
Since 1939 an wholly new coevals of immature people has grown to nubile age. To this new coevals, a diamond ring is considered a necessity for battle to virtually everyone. ( N.W. Ayers memo )
After the universe war two, the diamond industry realized that they are in a despairing demand of a motto, which will stand for their “ symbols of love ” . In 1948, N.W. Ayer & A ; Son coined a now extremist celebrated motto “ A Diamond is Forever ” . Today this motto is seen and understood by general multitudes as an allusion to the infinity of love. What is curious about this motto is that in world it has really arisen from the fright that people will put 2nd manus jewellery back on the market, which would finally undercut monetary values of the diamonds. The esteemed US magazine, Advertising Age, in its January 1999 edition, proclaimed “ A Diamond is Forever ” the most recognized and effectual motto of the 20th century.
B. Second scheme of DeBeers trust aimed to widen the symbolic significance of the diamond rings from the battle to the day of remembrances, which will typify reassurance of enduring love. Therefore in their 2nd selling scheme they began concentrating on a 10 twelvemonth day of remembrances. Once this scheme proved to be successful De Beers extended day of remembrances even further and began publicizing run for their 3rd selling strategy/idea, which was concentrating on the twenty-fifth day of remembrance.
Furthermore in their 4th selling scheme DeBeers decided to spread out their mark market to the work forces as the receivers of diamonds, which every bit good proved to be successful. The most recent major DeBeers marketing run or scheme # 5 ; is the enlargement of the bing mark market to the adult females as purchasers of diamonds for themselves, making this chiefly by tie ining diamonds with the independency. Even though there is some positive empirical informations it is still excessively early since the origin of this scheme, for the same to be evaluated.
Another successful publicity that falls within the frames of scheme # 1, 2 and 3, is the “ infinity ring ” run, which was presented as a symbol of go oning fondness and the grasp of the loved 1s. Like marrying rings, infinity rings are a symbol of everlasting love.
“ Although infinity rings are often given to observe an day of remembrance or other particular event such as the birth of a kid, there is no precise juncture for which to give this “ exceeding ” gift. Given as a touchable symbol of the promise to love everlastingly, an infinity ring is a beautiful manner to demo the love of your life how much she means to you. ”[ 2 ]
What does Thomas Shelby think is diverting about the “ Eternity Ring ” is that at the tallness of the cold war, the Russian diamonds from Siberia, which are in the infinity ring were successfully marketed and sold in USA.[ 3 ]
Latest in the major run of diamond rings is the “ Trilogy Ring ” , which is stand foring the yesteryear, nowadays and the hereafter of a love relationship.
“ Three rocks. Three narratives. But merely one you. The Trilogy ring frames three diamonds one to stand for your yesteryear, another to stand for your present and the last to stand for your hereafter. The perfect incarnation of your life narrative? ”[ 4 ]
III. Diamonds as symbols of regard, prestigiousness and edification.
A. De beers and N.W. Ayer & A ; Son are responsible for the creative activity of the thought that diamonds are rare and valuable, and that they “ are ” besides an indispensable marks of love, regard and prestigiousness. Analogous to the run, which was transforming the diamonds into the symbols of love, a subliminal undertone of prestigiousness was of all time present, underlining and stressing the significance of diamonds. For this “ subliminal undertone ” the thought was to tie in diamonds with the sophisticated subtext of art and classiness. Hence N.W. Ayer besides arranged for film stars to look at societal events adorned with diamonds. The bureau used its influence to modify movie books and film rubrics to have diamonds more conspicuously.
“ Gesture images rarely include scenes demoing the choice of or purchase of an engagement ring to a miss. It would be our program to reach scenario authors and managers and arrange for such scenes in suited productions. ” ( N.W. Ayers memo to DeBeers )
In add-on to Hollywood, DeBeers used the royalty worldwide to move as the “ promotional agents ” for the diamond industry, one time once more stressing prestigiousness, regard and edification. The consequence of these selling runs is that planetary one-year gross revenues of diamonds rose up from 23 million US dollars in 1939 to 50 billion in 2001.
Empirical and analytical informations collected over the past decennaries about the DeBeers Ltd. or diamond industry in general, shows a really unfavourable and wholly opposite world than it is portrayed in our general society. Edward Epstein discovered that the existent concern of the diamond industry is the limitation what comes out of the land, what got cut, how much went on the market and at the same clip making the thought that there is a great demand. Besides these unethical and illegal concern malpractices DeBeers is associated with the Apartheid government because they made usage of many establishments that created Apartheid in South Africa. Another known fact is that DeBeers created mining work force from the black people populating on the land, by making revenue enhancements for their land. Furthermore working conditions for these mineworkers in South Africa were hapless, with non much nutrient, populating in conditions where inns had 20 people per room and all this while mining 60 hours a hebdomad. Furthermore in India over 100.000 kids under the age of 13, consist a important portion of the Indian labour pool that cuts little diamonds, which finally makes possible for the production of inexpensive jewellery in the western universe. The most flagitious trait diamond trust has is its direct duty for act uponing loss of the human life trough diamond wars. DeBeers were connected to many “ conflict diamonds ” , dubbed “ Blood Diamonds ” because of the loss of human life and blood spilled in support of the diamond production and control of mines in some African states. So how it is that these accepted “ symbols of love ” , which come from human development, agony and even decease, flourish in our society and are seen as symbols described above? To reply this we have to turn to the analysis of the advertisement in general, and in which ways it affects and influences a human mind.
First of all we have to understand that the advertisement is a discourse trough and about objects. In our instance the diamond narrative or DeBeers is a discourse of a narrative about love, familiarity and household, and this narrative is told through and about diamonds. To understand this hyper-commercialized universe we have to do certain that we ask the right inquiries about the power of advertisement. The incorrect inquiry is ; does an advertisement run addition gross revenues of that peculiar merchandise or a trade name. But the right inquiry would be in cultural position ; how does publicizing act upon the manner we think about ourselves, about the universe, about what is good and bad, every bit good as right or incorrect. We have to believe about how advertisement influences our values and our individualities. And eventually we have to understand that advertisement negotiations to us about topics that are of import, but it does it trough the medium of “ things ” .
This highly successful diamond advertisement run has changed really small since its origin in 1938 for the ground that it has been fabulously successful in the enterprise of act uponing the demand and sale of diamonds. Three general points to pull from the diamond advertisement illustrations are ; 1. “ The present ” has been constructed by actions in history, 2. Ad power is based on doing certain other viing messages about merchandises are non allowed to be heard, 3. Our thoughts about things that matter to us like household, friends, familiarity, gender, security etc. are shaped by the broader cultural environment of which advertisement is a cardinal portion.
It is said that the trust ‘s greatest achievement is that it has created and upheld the semblance that the diamonds are scarce and valuable, even though about 130A million carats ( 26,000A kilogram ( 57,000 pound ) ) of diamonds are mined yearly. Although all these delusory messages and beliefs are played upon us as society, we have to retrieve that the diamond misrepresentation is non a one-man drama, because cheat and deceived play a portion in this misrepresentation coaction.