Palladian architecture refers to a European type of architecture whose beginning is the Venetian designer Andrea Palladio who lived between 1508 and 1580. The plants and constructs of this designer inspired the Palladian edifices ( Frampton, 142 ) . The chief characteristics of Palladian architecture are symmetricalness, position, and ancient architecture of Grecian temples. The metropoliss chiefly characterized by Palladian architecture edifices that include churches and Villas are Venice and Veneto. Alternatively of concentrating on the rich cosmetic feature of the new beginning, Palladian architecture emphasized the mathematical proportionality of a edifice ‘s constituents ( Frampton, 142 ) . The design of Palladian edifices varied depending on the scenery or location. A Palladian edifice on a hill was designed so that the resident would hold a position of all the waies. An illustration of a Palladian edifice is the Rotunda.
Rotunda is a edifice located in the evidences of the University of Virginia. Thomas Jefferson designed the Rotunda whose building started in 1822. The initial building cost of the Rotunda was $ 57,773 by 1822 and the edifice is 77 pess ( 23.5 m ) in tallness. The edifice epitomized ‘authority of nature and power of ground ‘ to Jefferson and the people of Virginia. Its building was complete in 1826, by which clip Thomas Jefferson had died ( Alexander, 56 ) . The Rotunda housed a library and is seen as a symbol of Jefferson ‘s attempts to divide the church and instruction ( Alexander, 56 ) . In most instances, the Rotunda would hold been used as a church given the masterwork it is and power wielded by the church in those yearss. Today, UNESCO conserves and protects the Rotunda as a World heritage site.
Neoclassic architecture originates from the neoclassical motion of the eighteenth century. Neoclassic architecture borrows to a great extent from Andrea Palladio ‘s plants and Grecian architecture ( Pryce, 98 ) . A outstanding characteristic of the neoclassical architecture is the weight it lays on the walls. Shuning the buoyant life style of the nobility, the lifting middle class during the enlightenment period developed the neoclassical architecture. This type of architecture was less excessive compared to the Baroque manner used by the nobility in that period. The frivolous inside informations of the Baroque manner, loved by the nobility, were scrapped and the edifice made merely of functional constituents. The dramatic curves were replaced with clean lines, and the columns were erected entirely for support and non aesthetic values. The architecture of this period was characterized by symmetricalness, balance and a return to the cardinal, geometric signifiers of ancient times ( Pryce, 99 ) .
The Antigua Universidad in Valencia is an illustration of a neoclassical edifice. This is an elegant edifice, both in the inside and exterior parts. It has a courtyard with covered walks with Doric columns and mentions to teaching/education. Besides, it has a forepart that resembles an ancient temple with marble legislative acts. It has a sober visual aspect without any ornaments. Other neoclassical edifices in Spain include the Ayuntamiento, and Palacio-Monasterio del Temple, enforcing edifices having the same authoritative signifiers and columns of the Antigua Universidad. The Ayuntamiento serves as the metropolis Hall while the Correos is the Post Office of the metropolis of Valencia. The Plaza Ayuntamiento, consists of modern and neo-classical edifices which fuse together to make a alone position.
Gothic Revival Period Architecture
Gothic revival architectural motion appeared in the 1740s in England. It is besides referred to as the Victorian- or neo-gothic. This architecture was associated with the motion that called for the Restoration of ‘high church ‘ to typify the respect in which the church was held. The Gothic resurgence edifices are characterized by high towers and pinnacles and are thought to hold begun in Paris in 1140 ( Frampton, 102 ) . It nevertheless came to boom in Westminster in the early 1700s. An illustration of Gothic revival period architecture is the Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart, which is the place of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. The cathedral is situated at 89 Ridge Street in Newark, New Jersey.
The building work at the site began in 1899 and continued until 1954. Although the origin design intended an English or Irish Gothic design, it was subsequently changed to Gallic Gothic. The highs of the forepart towers were reduced 232 pess from 332 pess and the steeples were besides eliminated to cut down the weight on the tower. The nave buttresses and pinnacles were besides eliminated and the figure of entryway sculptures increased ( Frampton, 103 ) . Among the outstanding characteristics of the cathedral are the steel-slated roofs, the granite canopies, and medallions. The building of the above characteristics was complete by 1924 after which the Windowss were fitted. The medallions are covered with biblical scenes and bishop-portraits designed under the supervising of Rochette and Parzini of New York City. Other illustrations of Gothic resurgence edifices are Saint Mary ‘s Church in Townsville, Australia, and Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario.
Art Deco Architecture
The art deco edifices were referred to as the edifices of the hereafter and were outstanding during the 1820s and 1830s. They were non merely sleek and geometric but besides dramatic in visual aspects. In fact, the art deco architecture borrows widely from many civilizations such as the Far East, ancient Greece and Rome, Africa, India, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations ( Frampton, 121 ) . With the aid of Robert Mallet-Stevens who lived between 1886 and 1945, art deco was promoted in Europe while Raymond Hood designed art deco houses in the United States. Some of these edifices are the Radio City Music Hall auditorium, the RCA edifice at Rockefeller Center, and the New York Daily News constructing all in New York City. Art deco edifices are known for their munificent ornaments and symbolic images.
The fosse celebrated art deco edifice is New York ‘s Chrysler Building, designed by William Van Alen. The building of the construction began in September 1928 and completed on May 20, 1930. The edifice is decorated with eagle goon decorations, hubcaps, and abstract images of autos ( Frampton, 122 ) . The edifice is located on the eastern side of Manhattan and stands at 319 metres high. The chief characteristics of the edifice are its alone ornamentations. The corners of the edifice are besides adorned with bird of Joves. The edifice is constructed of stonework, with a steel frame, and metal shell for security. In entireness, the edifice presently contains 3,862 Windowss on its forepart wall and four Bankss of eight lifts. When ab initio opened, the edifice had a viewing gallery for the populace on the 71st floor but it was closed in 1945.
Many paces were made in architectural industry in the late 18th and early nineteenth century. The industrial revolution had a great impact on the edifice industry due to mass production of stuffs. Builders and designers had adequate stuffs and ornamentation for their construction. The industrial revolution introduced the machine age to the architectural industry. With the coming now of steel and glass as favorite building stuffs, and motion toward thin architecture, manners such as Bauhaus, International, and Postmodernism were born.
Humanistic disciplines and Craft Movement Architecture
The late nineteenth century, peculiarly between 1880 and 1910 experienced a singular attempt to resuscitate handcrafts such as art, trade, and architecture in England. This period was called the Art and Craft motion. An creative person named William Morris influenced the growing of the art and trade epoch architecture, which was besides inspired by the Hagiographas of John Ruskin. The Oregon Public Library in Oregon, Illinois, is an illustration of art and trade architecture. This edifice is a public library built in 1909 utilizing money donated by a affluent altruist named Andrew Carnegie. It was nevertheless designed by Pond and Pond, members of the Eagle ‘s Nest Art Colony. The design of the edifice borrowed to a great extent from the classical resurgence and the humanistic disciplines and trade period architecture. For its educational and architectural importance, the edifice has been included in the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.
Art Nouveau Architecture
Art Nouveau is an international cosmetic arts-architecture motion that was most popular during at the bend of the twentieth century. It was nevertheless, between the old ages 1890 and 1910 that the motion prospered most. The name merely means new art. This manner of architecture was inspired by organic ornaments such as flowers or works motives every bit good as wavy or rounded ornaments. Art nouveau extended beyond edifices onto furniture ornament. In architecture, parabolas and hyperbolas in Windowss, arches, and doors characterized art nouveau. Examples of art neavoea are the stairway of the Maison & A ; atelier of master Horta. The latter edifice is one of four Horta-designed town edifices in Brussels that are together documented by UNESCO as stand foring the highest look of the powerful Art Nouveau technique in art and architecture.
Modernism Period Architecture
The architecture of the modernism epoch borrows to a great extent from the industrial revolution period. Increase in the production and supply of constructing stuffs such as dramatis personae Fe, steel, and glass, with which designers and applied scientists devised constructions of impossible size, signifier, and map fueled architectural promotion ( Duanfang, 153 ) . By the 2nd half of the nineteenth century, more advanced edifices, tunnels, canals, and Bridgess were already being built. Commercial edifices in urban countries took the signifier of skyscrapers with electric lifts and high usage of steel and other tough and lasting metals. Two of the most celebrated designers during the modern period are I.M Pei and Frank Lloyd Wright. The Bauhaus school of architecture has truly encouraged the modern motion and brought together designers, painters, and interior decorators from many states to put ends for the ocular humanistic disciplines in the modern age.
Post- Modernism Architecture
Postmodernist Architecture and motion begun between 1965 and 1980 when designers and critics stressed that there was no better manner than postmodern. Postmodernism was characterized by value for individualism and complexness. Postmodernism architecture replaces the structured signifier and map of modernism period architecture with a mixture of borrowed but diverse manner. It began in the 1950s but became a world-wide motion in the 1970s. It continues up to the present twenty-four hours architecture. It symbolized the return of ornamentation and smarting compared to the formalism of the modernism architecture. The purposeful and formalistic forms and infinites of the modernist motion are replaced by diverse aesthetics. Different manners are allowed to clash ; signifiers are adopted for their ain interest. Architects rediscovered certain symbolic and expressive values of architectural elements forgotten during the modernism in the postmodernism epoch ( Glancey, 113 ) . A characteristic of postmodernism edifices is the gable roof that sheds H2O off from the centre of the edifice.
The Philip Johnson ‘s At & A ; T Headquarters is frequently cited as an illustration of postmodernism. Like many edifices of the same manner, the skyscraper has a sleek, classical frontage ( Glancey, 113 ) . At the top, nevertheless, is an outsize triangular gable between a horizontal construction and a sloping roof. The edifice is presently the central office of Sony and is referred to as Sony Headquarters. It is located on 550 Madison Avenue, New York. Philip Johnson and his spouse John Burgee built the construction. The building of the edifice began in 1984. The edifice is 197 metres high and has 37 narratives.
Palladian Architecture versus Neoclassicism Architecture
The Palladian and neoclassicism architectures appeared during different historical times. While Palladian architecture was common in the sixteenth century, the neoclassicism Architecture appeared in the eighteenth century ( Colquhoun, 79 ) . Coincidentally, Andrea Palladio ‘s plants inspired both architectures, though neoclassicism architecture was besides influenced by Grecian architecture. Both manners did non besides stress on ornaments or buoyancy of the edifice. The Palladian architecture emphasized symmetricalness and mathematical proportionality, the neoclassicism edifices emphasized construction functionality. In add-on, the neoclassicism architecture considered symmetricalness, balance and the cardinal, geometric signifiers of ancient times.
Different periods in the universe history experient architectural manners. These changed in architectural manners were propelled and influenced non merely by civilizations but besides by single creative persons. While the artist Andrea Palladio inspired Palladian architecture, the neoclassical architecture is mostly influenced by Grecian architecture. Increased industry of edifice stuffs on the other manus shaped the architectural designs during the Industrial Revolution. The demand to reconstruct the high place of the church influenced the Gothic resurgence architecture, known for high towers. The civilization of organic and motif ornaments inspired the art nouveau architecture while postmodernism was inspired by the demand to for a more fashionable and complex architecture that the modernism are edifices.