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The intent of this paper to analyze the construct of glass ceiling and its being. The being of a glass ceiling as identified through assorted factors lending in the glass ceiling. The factors include gender stereotype, gender favoritism & A ; gender pay spread which acts as a alone stressors for adult females that non merely inhibits calling growing but besides could be a beginning of emphasis and strain for them. There are schemes for get the better ofing the glass ceiling such as extinguishing gender pigeonholing from educational course of study, mentoring and Office Federal Commission Contract Compliance Programs.

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Introduction:

The term glass ceiling was foremost used by Carol Hymowitz and Timathy Schellhardt in the March ( 1986 ) edition of the Wall Street Journal to depict the bounds of promotion that adult females face in the workplace ( Hymowitz and Schellhardt 1986 ) . The metaphor of the glass ceiling has become a popular account of why a really few adult females achieve leading place, why they do non look to mount up the corporate ladder every bit rapidly as adult females and why they tend to be more faced with more rigorous publicity demands than their male opposite number. Glass ceiling can be defined as unseeable barriers ( “ Glass ” ) through which adult females can see top -level places but can non make them ( Ceiling ) .Theses unseeable barriers stop adult females and minorities from calling promotion. Gyllensten, & A ; Palmer ( 2005 ) & A ; Nelson, Quick, Hitt, & A ; Moesel, ( 1990 ) described that deficiency of calling promotion could be a beginning of emphasis and strain for many working female employees. A batch of adult females are come ining in direction field but few of them get an chance at the top direction degree.Stroh, Brett & A ; Reilly ( 1992 ) found that despite of holding same cognition and skill female working directors fail to travel up every bit rapidly as male employees. There is a large inquiry on the being of glass ceiling within an organisation because it claimed that adult females did non make at high degree of corporate ‘s hierarchy due to work-family struggle or did non obtain the needed degrees of instruction and or experience. But most of the research ( Catalyst,1991 ; The U.S Merit Systems Protection Board,1992 ; U.S Department of labour,1991 ) has indicated being of barrier that stop promotion of adult females. Veale & A ; Gold ( 1998 ) conducted research in Metropolitan District Council situated in Yorkshire, UK besides found that a glass ceiling did be within the council and this inhibited adult females ‘s patterned advance into senior management.A1995 survey by the Federal Glass Ceiling found that 97 per centum of the senior directors of the Fortune 500 were white and 95-97 per centum were male.This is non demographically representative, sing that 57 per centum of work force consists of cultural minorities, adult females or both.In 1990, Jaclyn Fierman ( 1990 ) found that fewer than.5 per centum of the 4,012 highest paid directors in top companies in the United States were adult females, while fewer than 5 % of senior direction in the Fortune 500 corporations were minorities.From the above survey, there is a concrete grounds of being of glass ceiling.A figure of factors such as gender stereotype, gender pay spread and gender favoritism that affect glass ceiling.

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Literature Reappraisal:

The cause of emphasis is known as “ stressors ” or “ stimulus ” .A figure of research workers discussed on the stressors. Harmonizing to Cooper and Marshal ( 1976 ) stated that occupational emphasis includes the environmental factors or stressors such as work overload, function ambiguity, function struggle and hapless on the job conditions associated with a peculiar job.P-E misfit contribute to many occupational stressors such as conflicting function demands, work overload & A ; function ambiguity ( Hart & A ; Cooper 2002 ) .Role struggle, ambiguity, and overload often have been studied as ancestors of occupational emphasis ( e.g. , Brief & A ; Aldag, 1976 ; Ivanceyich, Matteson, & A ; Preston, 1982 ; Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & A ; Rosenthal, 1964 ; Manning, Ismael, & A ; Sherwood, 1981 ; Rosse & A ; Rosse, 1981 ) .According to Beehr et Al ( 1976 ) , Cordes & A ; Doughtery ( 1993 ) , Dyer & A ; Quine ( 1998 ) and Ursprung ( 1986 ) have been studied function ambiguity as a beginning of emphasis. Some stressors are common in both work forces and adult females. For illustration Carol Scott and Donald R.Mc Creary had discussed in his book “ Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology Volume 2 ” that work overload and occupation security are normally reported by both work forces and adult females as major stressors in the workplace ( Tennant,2001 ) .But some occupation stressors are more outstanding in working adult females that can be referred as a alone stressors for them.Working female employees confront to alone stressors at workplace such as function conflicting, work/home struggle, sex favoritism, gender pay spread and stereotyping ( Bhatnagar, 1988 ; Kim, 1989 ; Rosenfield & A ; Stephan, 1978 ; Pines & A ; Solomon, 1979 ; Powell, 1988Cocchiara & A ; Bell, 2010 ) .Acoording to Cowan ( 1989 ) & A ; Powell ( 1988 ) glass ceilings are alone stressors for working female.These stressors are barrier in calling growing among adult females.Foot and Venne ( 1990 ) found that there is a positive relationship between barriers to career promotion and work emphasis. When there is deficiency of calling chance, employee feel unsure about the hereafter in organisation can do occupation emphasis and glass ceiling is one the major barrier in calling chance. For illustration Gold and Pringle ( 1988 ) conducted research on 50 in-between and senior directors. They found that fewer female directors got publicities than male directors and hence did non travel upward in hierarchy The footing of publicities were past preparation, experience and personal accomplishments. Women felt that a major barrier to their calling promotion was negative organisational attitudes towards adult females in male environment. The ‘glass ceiling ‘ describes the mostly unseeable barriers that limit calling promotion for adult females, peculiarly in big organisations and in male-dominated professions such as technology and medical specialty. For illustration Tokunaga and Graham ( 1997 ) found that female applied scientists could non travel upward in corporate hierarchy as male applied scientists did and this besides indicated that glass ceiling existed and inhibited adult females ‘s calling growing.

“ Glass ceiling ” refers to invisible or artificial behavior that inhibits the calling growing of adult females and minorities. The term coined in the 1970s in the United States to depict the unseeable unreal barriers, created by attitudinal and organisational biass, which block adult females from senior executive places. This term glass ceiling was popularized in 1986 Wall Street Journal depicting adult females face this unseeable barrier that stops the calling promotion. Morrison & A ; Glinow ( 1990 ) refer glass ceiling transparent but existent and strong barrier which inhibits adult females from upward motion in the corporate hierarchy.For illustration, adult females hold merely 2 % of senior direction places and merely 5 % of corporate board places ( Friedman, 1988 ) . Harmonizing to Catalyst ( April 2012 ) , adult females presently hold 3.4 per centum of Fortune 500 CEO functions and 3.6 per centum of Fortune 1000 functions. A figure of factors that keeps glass ceiling in consequence are gender stereotyping, gender pay spread, sex favoritism, and work-home struggle. Other than these factors, organisational political relations besides acts as a alone stressor for adult females ( beginning: Optimum emphasis by Carol Scott ) .

Factors affect Glass Ceiling:

I ) Gender Pigeonholing -Gender stereotype merely means generalisation or perceptual experience or belief about the gender attributes. For illustration many directors general perceptual experience those adult females are caretaker to their kids, seniors and to their households than work. They are compassionate, lovingness, fostering and sympathetic towards their household. These kinds of stereotypes can make harmful to female employees. Possibly, these types of stereotype can make barrier in calling promotion for adult females.According to Fierman ( 1990 ) and Gest ( 1991 ) , most of the organisations non even see adult females for a publicity because some directors generalized that if a publicity requires transfer out of the town would be possible for females to travel outskirts due to household duties. Schein ( 2007 ) found that gender stereotyping of the managerial place has continued to be the major barrier to adult females ‘s advancement in direction worldwide. Karin Klenke discussed in her book “ Women and Leadership: A Contextual Position ” that many of the prevailing stereotypes continue.Fig1.depicts that small male childs mentioned electronic games and athleticss equipment, most frequently, while small misss had manner dolls and plaything animate beings on their list.The being of gender stereotyping could be better explained by the Social function theory ( Eagly,1987 ) .This theory depicts that work forces and adult females behave otherwise in societal establishments. For illustration adult females frequently are acknowledge for domestic activities, caring and nuturing to their kids at place and work forces who frequently presumed fiscal supplier or duties outside place. Role congruousness theory provinces that the perceptual experience to gender functions can be in struggle with beliefs of appropriate leading function ( as cited in Boyce Karin & A ; Herd,2003 ) .These writers note that function congruousness theory is particularly prevailing in male dominated professions.Davis ( 2003 ) notes that function congruousness theory integrates the societal psychological science positions sing pigeonholing with the industrial organisational psychological science positions on perceptual experience of leading and direction functions. ( p.11 ) .Essentially, function congruousness theory provinces that perceived functions of adult females are incompatible with the expected functions of adult females in society, which leads to gender pigeonholing.Eagly and Karau ( 2002 ) besides note function congruousness theory as a cardinal factor behind gender stereotyping.Stereotype menace has been proven to negatively impact the public presentation of the adult females and specially, in her professional aspirations ( Roberson and Kulik, 2007 ) .

Dolls

22 %

Electronic Games

18 %

Sports Equipment

18 %

Manner Dolls

21 %

Plaything Animals

9 %

Action Figures

15 %

Beginning: Adapted from Dear Santa Toys that Girl ‘s and Boys would most likely to Receive for

Holiday Gifts USA Today, 1994.

two ) Gender Wage-gap -Apart from gender stereotyping, gender pay spread besides plays its function in the organisations. Gender Wage-gap merely refers to the differences in mean net incomes of work forces and women.It measures the earning differences between adult females and work forces in paid employment United States Government Accounting Office & A ; Sherrill ( 2009 ) .Still adult females are paid less than work forces for the same occupation because perceptual experience originate by some persons or groups that work forces are more superior than adult females in footings of accomplishments, cognition, abilities, leading and managerial activities. Harmonizing to ( UNDP, 2006 ) two chief grounds can be identified for pay spread -direct gender favoritism in labour market and occupational segregation. Direct gender favoritism exists when employees are treated otherwise because of gender despite of holding same degree of instruction and experience or female employees are paid less than male employees for making the same occupation merely due to gender. For illustration, see the gender spread in wages. In 2002, The Census Bureau reported that a adult female ‘s mean wage was merely 77 % of the mean wage for a adult male. Occupational segregation means that work forces and adult females can be placed in separate industries and business and in male dominated industries have been more extremely valued with ‘men ‘s work ‘ paid more than ‘women ‘s work’.For illustration adult females prefer to work in the lower paid occupations such as cleansing, lovingness, catering, clerical, cashiering, instructors, nurses secretaries and merely opposite work forces prefer to work in businesss with relatively high rewards such as directors, scientist, applied scientists, attorneies, executive etc. the mean and average net incomes of adult females in general has been much lower than the mean and average net incomes of work forces in general.To eradicate such pay spread, equal wage Act came into image 1963 and this Act prohibits pay differential pattern for male and female employees in a given house. Despite of the being of this Act, adult females are still paid less than men-even when we have similar instruction, accomplishments and experience.Across sample of 11 European Union states in 1995-2001.Generally, adult females are paid less than work forces and when pay spread is wider at the top of pay distribution known as ‘glass ceiling ‘ consequence and when pay spread is wider at the underside of the pay distribution known as ‘sticky floor ‘ ( Booth & A ; Bryan ; 2007 ) . Arulampalam et Al. ( 2007 ) described the term ‘sticky floor ‘ when the pay spread is wider at the underside of pay distribution. For illustration, In the 1990s, Swedish pay spread was due to pay spread at the top of the pay distribution.Business hebdomad magazine noted that those who do do it to the top are paid “ well less than their male opposite numbers ” with adult females paid 68 cents for every dollar paid to a male corporate officer ( Hammonds, 1998, ) . Gender pay spread vary from state to state. It has been found that the highest gender pay spread is in Korea and Japan at 39 % difference and 28 % difference between adult females and work forces ‘s wages. Hungary is the lowest with 4 % .

( three ) Gender discrimination- Gender favoritism would include engaging or advancing one individual overran every bit qualified individual because of the person ‘s race, sex etc ; or payinga male more than a female to execute the same occupation. Bell, McLaughlin and Sequeria ( 2002 ) discussed about relationship between favoritism, torment and glass ceiling and found glass ceiling was one the signifier of gender favoritism. Discrimination can be categorized into horizontal and perpendicular favoritism. Gluey Floor besides refers to the horizontal favoritism against adult females, which means that adult females are discriminated in assignment, preparations and assignments. On the other facets, there are assorted grounds behind perpendicular favoritism or glass ceiling.First, harmonizing to Reskin et Al ( 1986 ) homosocociality implies that work forces have inclination to prefer work forces for relaxation and societal support. Second, harmonizing to Ackler ( 1990 ) work forces are better suited for leading place than adult females such attitudes can be used by work forces in organisation to procure power and authorization ( Rosefield et al 1990 ) and 3rd statistical favoritism, where adult females non acquire publicity by their foreman because adult females are more frequent absent from work than work forces, due to caretaker and child bearing duties. ( De Laricaet all. , 2005 ) .

Interrupting the Glass Ceiling:

Karin Klenke mentioned in her book “ Women and Leadership: A Contextual position ” that the being of glass ceiling non merely hampers an single but society as whole. It efficaciously cuts our pool of possible corporate leaders by extinguishing over one of our population.It deprives our economic system of new leaders, new beginnings of creativeness -the “ would be ” innovators of the concern universe.It is of import to check the glass ceiling.Lynn Martin, former Secretary of Labour ( U.S Department of Labour, 1991pp1-2 )

Interrupting the Glass Ceiling Can Reach The Top of America? ( Morrison et al ; 1987,1992 ) was foremost published in 1987 and has spurred a lively treatment among laypeople and research workers in the academic, trade and popular imperativeness. Harmonizing to Morrison et al the glass ceiling is non a merely a barrier for an single adult female, instead it applies to as a group who are kept from progressing higher because they are adult females.They concluded that in order to make high-ranking place, adult females are expected to hold more strength and fewer mistakes than their male collegues.

Extinguishing gender-stereotyping from educational course of study -Most of the books portray adult females ‘s image as a kid carrier, housewife, nurturer and applicable for traditional businesss such as nurse, instructors and secretary.Nowadays adult females had changed the tendency and started working as a CEO, bank director, lab technicians and gross revenues forces. A figure of states have reviewed consistently to cut down gender stereotype.For illustration Azerbajan had taken inaugural to revise the content of text books to cut down stereotypically image of adult females. In 1990s, Argentina launched a national programme to advance equal chance of work forces & A ; adult females in instruction. The chief aim of this programme to revise course of study which reflects adult females ‘s engagement in all countries.

Mentoring -Mentoring can get the better of the glass ceiling.Mentoring has a figure of benefits such as calling promotion, occupation public presentation, publicity determinations and low absennteism.For illustration Roche ( 1979 ) , conducted research on executives and found that two-thirds of executives had wise mans and received higher wages and fillips and entire compensation than their opposite numbers without wise mans.The same sort of research being conducted by Reily and Wrunch ( 1985 ) and found that adult females with wise mans were more satisfied with their occupations and had great success than adult females without wise man.

Office Federal Commission Contract Compliance Programs – It enforces Torahs and ordinances that prohibit authorities contractor and sub-contractor from know aparting in their employment patterns against adult females and minorities.Such patterns include an organizational ‘s forces choice system, public presentation ratings, assignments to developing plans and salary and benefit systems.Organization, including those of federal contractors are required by jurisprudence to do good-faith attempts to pull, develop and retain adult females and minorities.

Apart from these governmental intiatives the glass ceiling phenomenon induced treatment and in the January -February 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Felice N.Schwartz president and laminitis of accelerator wrote an article “ Management Women and the New Facts of Life ” contained provocative thoughts such as it is really dearly-won to engage adult females as comparison to work forces because adult females ‘s abrasion rate is higher than male employee every bit good as adult females ‘s calling become disturbed when they have children.His thoughts were dubbed “ Mommy path ” because he suggested that corporate should follow two-tired system for adult females employees, one for calling oriented and one for those who divide their attending between work and household.For the former group, Schwartz suggested that all obstructions to advancement should be cleared.For adult females who are both calling and household oriented, he argued that companies must go more flexible to do the best usage of employees.They must be after for and manage pregnancy better, supply greater workplace and work hr flexibleness and do high quality twenty-four hours attention available. ( major beginning Work in America: An Encyclopaedia of History, Policy and Society. )

The Torahs and statues forbiding employment favoritism and the guidelines for extinguishing pay and calling promotion disparities need to be enforced if they are to accomplish their ends. These include European Union ( EU ) , Equal wage Directive, the United Nations Global Impact, International Labour Organization ( ILO ) , Equal Remuneration Convention 100, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprise ( Lockwood ; 2004 ) .

A survey of Fortune 1000 CEOs and Senior executives found that 47 % of adult females thought they were held back from patterned advance in their callings due to their exclusion from informal web ( Catalyst2003 ) .As web “ can be magnet for recruiting and retaining top winners ”Bready and McGregor ( 2007 ) , they can function as powerful calling promotion tools. For these webs to run into adult females ‘s need adult females must work to better their networking accomplishment, which are less developed than work forces ( Kummara & A ; Vincombe, 2008 ) .This can be accomplished go toing workshop and by going active in professional associations and groups.

Womans at a distinguishable

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Fig:1 ( CFactors impacting Glass ceiling )

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A quantitive survey of perceptual experience Female Air Force Leaderships By Melissa Anne Stone.

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